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USA/Commonwealth of the Philippines Variety Set

Category:  Varieties
Owner:  JAA
Last Modified:  6/11/2017
Set Description
After the United States defeated Spain in the Spanish-American war of 1898 the Philippines became an American possession. Unlike other "Colonial Powers" the United States always had intentions of giving the Philippine islands full independence once the basis for good government was established.

In 1935 a Constitution for the Philippines was approved and on November 15th of that year the Commonwealth of the Philippines was created. In 1937 the reverse designs of all USA/Philippine coins were changed to reflect the new status for the Philippines as a Commonwealth of the United States. The design used was an adaption of the official seal of "The Commonwealth of the Philippines".

All USA/Philipppine coins produced from 1937 through 1941 were struck at the Manila Mint.

On December 8th 1941 Japan attacked American forces in the Philippines. By May 1942 the Japanese invasion force had overwhelmed the greatly outnumbered "United States Army Forces in the Far East (USAFFE) and occupied the Philippine islands.

During the two and a half years of Japanese occupation the Commonwealth maintained a government in exile in the United States as well as a civil government which operated in secret in nearly every Philippine province. There was also a strong Guerrilla movement throughout the islands. During the Japanese occupation nearly all of the pre-war coinage disappeared from circulation and was replaced either by paper Japanese Invasion Money, Emergency Currency issued by Provincal Currency Boards authorized by the Commonwealth Government in Exile, or Currency printed by the various Guerrilla Military Units either on their own inititive or with the authorization of General MacArthur.

In October 1944 Allied Forces under the command of General Douglas MacArthur landed in Leyte and began the process of liberating the Philippines. During the month long Battle of Manila (February and March 1945) the Manila Mint was destroyed. By July 1945 the liberation of the Philippines had been completed.

One of the first tasks of the reestablished Commonwealth government was the redemption of the paper Emergency and Guerrilla Currency. In addition to paper Victory Money which had been printed in the United States the Commonwealth government brought with it millions of Pesos worth of silver and base medal coins which had been struck at mints in the continental United States in 1944 and 1945.

Fifty-eight Million Bronze One Centavo coins were struck at the San Francisco Mint in 1944. The San Francisco Mint also struck 21,198,000 Copper-Nickel Five Centavos dated 1944, 72,796,000 Copper-Nickel Five Centavos dated 1945, 19,187,000 Silver Fifty Centavos dated 1944, and 18,120,000 Silver Fifty Centavos dated 1945. The Philadelphia Mint struck 21,198,000 Copper-Nickel Five Centavos dated 1944. The Denver Mint struck 31,592,000 Silver Ten Centavos dated 1944, 137,208,000 Silver Ten Centavos dated 1945, 28,596,000 Silver Twenty Centavos dated 1944 and 82,804,000 Silver Twenty Centavos dated 1945.

The 1944 and 1945 Commonwealth coinage contain several interesting Die Varities.

On July 4th 1946 the Republic of the Philippines became a free and independent nation. Coins issued by the United States for use in the Philippines continued to circulate in Philippines until the mid 60's.

Set Goals
USA/Commonweath of the Philippines Die Varities

Slot Name
Origin/Country
Item Description
Full Grade
Owner Comments
Pics
View Coin 1944-S One Centavo Double Die Obverse UNITED STATES BRASS (COPPER-ZINC) 1C 1944 S USA-PHIL DDO Allen 3.06a PCGS MS 64 RD 1944-S One Centavo DDO (Allen 3.06a)

The Allen catalog of U.S. Philippine Coins recognizes four Die Varieties for this date:
1) 1944-S (Allen 3.06) The normal coin for this date.
2) 1944 S Double Die Obverse (Allen 3.06a). This Double Die Variety shows doubling at "STATES OF".
3) 1944-S Double Die Obverse Variety #2 (Allen 3.06aa). This Double Die Variety "shows doubling of the letters IPPINES on the scroll and the scroll itself as well as the letters of AMERICA most noticeable at the M and C".
4) 1944-S Incomplete 4 (Allen 3.06b). This fairly common variety has the "base of the last 4 missing at the left side".

This Double Die variety (Allen 3.06a) "shows doubling at STATES OF. Some experts think this variety could be a case of strike doubling, others disagree and believe up to four dies were used to produce this type. One Variety shows a die crack through the T of STATES and is valued at about 50% higher." (Allen 2007).

On this specimen the doubling is most prominent on the letters S, T, and E in STATES. Also note the die crack through the second T in STATES.

I purchased this coin from Cookie Jar Collectibles in October 2008 as an ANACS certified MS65 RD. Although I would have preferred to cross this coin over to either NGC or PCGS years ago neither NGC or PCGS were recognizing Allen Die Varieties in 2008 and NGC still does not recognize Allen Die Varieties for the 1944-S One Centavo. I submitted this specimen to PCGS for grading and Variety Attribution at the August 2014 ANA World's Fair of Money. The coin failed to cross over at the ANACS grade but did cross over as a PCGS MS64 RD.

PCGS Population 1/0
View Coin 1944-S One Centavo Double Die Obverse Variety #2 UNITED STATES BRASS (COPPER-ZINC) 1C 1944 S USA-PHIL DDO V2 Allen 3.06aa PCGS MS 64 RD 1944-S One Centavo DDO V2 (Allen 3.06aa)

The Allen catalog of U.S. Philippine Coins recognizes four Die Varieties for this date:
1) 1944-S (Allen 3.06) The normal coin for this date.
2) 1944 S Double Die Obverse (Allen 3.06a). This Double Die Variety shows doubling at "STATES OF".
3) 1944-S Double Die Obverse Variety #2 (Allen 3.06aa). This Double Die Variety "shows doubling of the letters IPPINES on the scroll and the scroll itself as well as the letters of AMERICA most noticeable at the M and C".
4) 1944-S Incomplete 4 (Allen 3.06b). This fairly common variety has the "base of the last 4 missing at the left side".

Of the three die varieties the Double Die Variety #2 (Allen 3.06aa) is by far the scarcest and most difficult to find. This specimen is particularly interesting as in addition to doubling of the letters in STATES and AMERICA the second 4 in the date appears to be triple punched.

I purchased this coin raw from "The Coin Den" in May 2008. Although I would have preferred to certify this coin years ago neither NGC or PCGS were recognizing Allen Die Varieties in 2008 and NGC still does not recognize Allen Die Varieties for the 1944-S One Centavo. I submitted this specimen to PCGS for grading and Variety Attribution at the August 2014 ANA World's Fair of Money. Graded PCGS MS64 Red this specimen is the only PCGS certified example of this scarce die variety.

PCGS Population 1/0
View Coin 1944-S One Centavo - Base of Last 4 Missing At Left Side (ALLEN-3.06b) UNITED STATES BRASS (COPPER-ZINC) 1C 1944 S USA-PHIL Allen 3.06b KM-179 PCGS MS 67 RD The 1944 One Centavo uses the same obverse and reverse designs as the pre-war One Centavo but has a different wartime composition.

The pre-war One Centavo was a bronze alloy of 95% copper, and 5% zinc and tin. Both copper and tin are important strategic materials during wartime. In order to conserve tin the wartime composition of the One Centavo was changed to a brass alloy of 95% copper and 5% zinc. This is the same alloy the mint used for the production of U.S. wartime pennies dated 1944-1946. The mint produced this alloy by combining ingots of pure copper with salvaged 70% copper shell casings.

During the 1942 through 1944 Japanese occupation of the Philippines, nearly all coins disappeared from circulation. In the occupied areas the Japanese collected all of the coins, melted them down and shipped them back to Japan. The few pre-war coins that escaped the melting pots were hoarded and hid away until after the war. Most daily commerce was conducted with low denomination paper currency (Emergency or Guerilla Currency) printed by Guerrilla military units, local municipalities, or Military and Civilian Currency Boards authorized by General MacArthur or the Commonwealth government-in-exile under President Quezon.

During the Japanese occupation there was a very active resistance movement in the Philippines, and allied inteligence was very much aware, of the economic situation in the islands, and the need to bring new coins and currency with them when they liberated the Philippines.

In preparation for General MacArthurs return to the Philippines, the Treasury Department ordered the San Francisco Mints to strike millions of One Centavo coins. When American forces liberated the Philippines in 1944 - 1945 they brought with them Fifty Eight Million 1944-S One Centavo coins.

The PCGS population for the 1944-S One Centavo in MS67 Red is six coins with none graded higher. The combined PCGS/NGC certified population for this coin in MS67 Red is only 12 coins with none graded higher.

This FULL RED SUPERB GEM is a die variety with the base of the last 4 missing at the left side (Allen number 3.06b). The 2012 edition of the Allen guide book lists the highest certified grade for this die variety at MS66 making this coin unique in MS67 RED.
View Coin 1945/5-S Five Centavos UNITED STATES COPPER-ZINC-NICKEL 5C 1945/5 S USA-PHIL ALLEN-6.06a KM-180a NGC MS 64 Allen Catalog Number 6.06a1945/5-S Five Centavos Re-punched 5. The 6th Edition of the Allen Catalog lists a combined (NGC, PCGS, ANACS) certified population for this die variety as three coins. This is the only NGC certified example of this die variety.
View Coin 1944-D/D Ten Centavos UNITED STATES SILVER 10C 1944 D/D USA-PHIL ALLEN-9.04a KM-181 NGC AU 58 Allen Catelog Number: 9.04a
View Coin 1945-D/D Ten Centavos UNITED STATES SILVER 10C 1945 D/D USA-PHIL ALLEN-9.05a KM-181 NGC MS 66 Allen Catalog Number 9.05a
1945 D/D Ten Centavos
D over D Mint Mark

Composition: Silver
Fineness: 0.7500
Weight: 2.0000g
ASW: 0.0482oz
Diameter: 16.7mm
Edge: Reeded

The Ten Centavos of 1937 through 1945 continued the same obverse design used on the 1903 through 1935 Ten Centavos. The reverse used the Commonwealth Arms design which was common to to the 1936 commemoratives and all Philippine coins from 1937 through 1945. Ten Centavos were made at the Manila Mint from 1937 through 1941, and at the Denver Mint in 1944 and 1945.

This Superb Gem is a NGC Top Pop coin with a population of only five specimens in this grade. The combined NGC/PCGS population for this die variety in MS66 is only six specimens with none graded higher.
View Coin 1945-D Ten Centavos DDR UNITED STATES SILVER 10C 1945 D DDR USA-PHIL ALLEN-9.05b KM-181 NGC AU 55 Mintage: 137,208,000 (All Varieties)
Composition: Silver
Fineness: 0.7500
Weight: 2.0000g
ASW: 0.0482oz
Melt Value: $0.76 (3/16/2015)
Diameter: 16.7mm
Edge: Reeded

Allen Number 9.05b
Doubled Die Reverse Variety #1
NGC Population: 2/7

Bodly doubled UNITED, AMERICA, DATE and bottom tip of shield on the reverse (USA side). This coin is comperable to the U.S. doubled die 1955 Cent of which thousands are known to exist. This coin is much rarer with only 11 known pieces. The combined certified ANACS, PCGS, NGC population for this coin in all grades is only 9 coins. Allen estimates that no more than 35 or so examples could exist in any grade today.
View Coin 1944-D/S Twenty Centavos UNITED STATES SILVER 20C 1944 D/S USA-PHIL ALLEN-12.04a KM-182 NGC MS 66 Mintage (all die varieties): 28,596,000
Composition: Silver
Fineness: 0.7500
Weight: 4.0000g
ASW: 0.0964oz
Diameter: 20 mm
Edge: Reeded

The Twenty Centavos of 1937 through 1945 was struck in the same size, weight, and silver fineness as the reduced size & weight Twenty Centavos of 1907 - 1929. The obverse used the same Melico Figueroa design that was used on the 1903 through 1929 Twenty Centavos. The reverse used the Commonwealth Arms design which was common to the 1936 commemoratives and all Philippine coins from 1937 through 1945. Twenty Centavos were produced at the Manila Mint from 1937 through 1941, and at the Denver Mint in 1944 and 1945.

This specimen is a 1944 D/S (D over S Mint Mark) Allen Catalog Number 12.04a. The 1944 D over S Twenty Centavos is unique among USA/Philippine Die Varities in that it is the only time during the 43 year history of U.S./Philippine coinage that a mint mark was ever over-punched with the mint mark from a different mint. The combined NGC/PCGS certified population for this important die variety in MS66 as 11 coins with only 4 specimens graded higher. The NGC population for this coin in MS66 is 6 coins with only 4 specimens graded higher. This specimen is a fully struck, untoned SUPERB GEM.
View Coin 1944-D/D Twenty Centavos UNITED STATES SILVER 20C 1944 D/D USA-PHIL ALLEN-12.04b NGC MS 64 1944 D/D Allen #12.04b, Combined NGC/PCGS Pop 2/1 (NGC Pop 2/1, PCGS Pop 1/0)

Mintage: 28,596,000
Catalog: KM-182
Composition: Silver
Fineness: 0.7500
Weight: 4.0000g
ASW: 0.0964oz
Melt Value: $2.80 (3/10/2013)
Diameter: 21mm
Edge: Reeded
View Coin 1945-S/S Fifty Centavos UNITED STATES SILVER 50C 1945 S/S USA-PHIL ALLEN-15.02a ALLEN-15.02a PCGS MS 63 Mintage: 18,120,000 (All Varieties)
Obverse Designer: Melicio Figueroa
Composition: Silver
Fineness: 0.7500
Weight: 10.0000g
ASW: 0.2411oz
Diameter: 27mm
Edge: Reeded

PCGS Population: 1/7 (6/10/2017)
NGC Population: 2/4 (6/10/2017)
Combined NGC/PCGS Population: 3/11 (6/10/2017)

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