NGC Registry

Collection Manager >

USA/Philippines - Allen Variety Set

Category:  Varieties
Owner:  coin928
Last Modified:  9/20/2021
Set Description
A set for highlighting the many die varieties in the USA/Philippine series.

Lyman L. Allen literally wrote the book on U.S. Philippine Coinage. Entitled "U.S./Philippine Coins," it is now in it's 7th edition. It is a guide book to the entire series and major varieties as well as a price guide. Mr. Allen self published his book every other year to keep the prices and population reports relatively fresh. My earliest copy is an autographed 4th Edition (2004-2005) published in late 2003. I don't know exactly what year he published the first edition, but if I extrapolate, it would have been roughly 1998. Mr. Allen sold the rights to his book in 2010, and the bi-annual publication schedule was interrupted. The book was updated and edited by Tom Culhane and the 7th edition was finally released in 2012.

An important part of this book is the definition of the major die varieties and as you might imagine, they are identified by their ALLEN number. The early editions contain detailed descriptions and pictures of most of these varieties. Unfortunately, none of these pictures are present in the 7th edition. They will be restored when the 8th edition is printed. Until then, a copy of both the 6th and 7th editions are necessary to properly identify die varieties.

Mr. Allen numbered every regular issue with a two part number. The major number identifies the denomination/design, while the minor number is a sequentially assigned integer representing the date. Varieties for a date are identified by one or more trailing letters. For example the 1908-S One Centavo is also known as ALLEN-2.06, and the 1908-S/S variety is identified as ALLEN-2.06a.

Both PCGS and NGC recognize some, but not all of the 64 varieties currently listed in the 7th edition. NGC identifies the varieties on their label using the ALLEN number as part of their Variety Plus program.

Included in this set are coins that have their variety identified on the label and some that do not. Some of these coins were graded before the varieties were attributed by the grading services and some are varieties that the grading services simply do not recognize.

I plan to continue growing this set as time and resources permit.

Rev. 10/26/2017

Set Goals
A set of all Allen varieties. A lofty and probably unattainable goal.

Slot Name
Origin/Country
Item Description
Full Grade
Owner Comments
Pics
View Coin ALLEN-2.06a 1908-S/S UNITED STATES 1C 1908 S/S USA-PHIL ALLEN-2.06a PCGS MS 65 RB Lyman Allen #2.06a S/S (KM #163) – Mintage: 2,187,000 (variety mintages unknown)

Only the 1909-S has a lower mintage, yet this issue is relatively easy to find in a high state of preservation. It is the first centavo coin minted for circulation since 1905 and the first minted by the San Francisco mint (which probably accounts for the high availability). The varieties, however, are not as easy to come by and are even more difficult if high grade RD or RB. I consider myself very lucky to have been able to acquire this one.

It is interesting to note that although other silver denominations were minted by the San Francisco mint prior to 1908, no USA/Philippine minor coinage (cents or nickels) was produced there. No minor coinage could be produced at any of the branch mints until 1906 when the US Congress passed a bill specifically allowing it. The increased demand for minor coinage in the Western United Sates paved the way for the minting of Philippine centavos at the San Francisco Mint. This event also marked the end of centavo production in Philadelphia.

This coin is ALLEN-2.06a which is the over mint mark S/S. The initial S was placed too high and the second punch failed to completely cover it. Parts of the original “S” protrude above the second strike giving it the appearance of having horns. So much so, that it is commonly referred to as the “horned ‘S’ variety.” This variety is recognized by both NGC and PCGS and will be identified as such on their labels.

This coin is redder than many RD coins in my collection, and I have no idea why it is labeled as RB (perhaps the grader was feeling exceptionally conservative the day this coin came through?) It is also very well struck with the entire outline of the top of the underlying S visible. It is currently one of the two finest know examples of the ALLEN-2.06a variety. The other MS65RB was graded by NGC.


Allen Varieties
ALLEN-2.06 - Normal date and mint mark.
ALLEN-2.06a - Over mint mark S/S. (This coin) This variety is recognized by NGC and PCGS.
ALLEN-2.06b - Over mint mark S/S/S & RPD - Even more dramatic than ALLEN-2.06a, the mint mark was triple punched (both high and low) and the first 2 digits of the date are doubled. This variety is recognized by NGC and PCGS.

Date acquired: 10/07/2012 (already graded by PCGS)

Rev. 2/28/2018
View Coin ALLEN-2.06b 1908-S/S/S UNITED STATES 1C 1908/1908 S/S/S USA-PHIL ALLEN-2.06b NGC MS 62 BN Lyman Allen #2.06b S/S/S (KM #163) – Mintage: 2,187,000 (variety mintages unknown)

Only the 1909-S has a lower mintage, yet this issue is relatively easy to find in a high state of preservation. It is the first centavo coin minted for circulation since 1905 and the first minted by the San Francisco mint (which probably accounts for the high availability). The varieties, however, are not as easy to come by and are even more difficult if high grade RD or RB. I consider myself very lucky to have been able to acquire this one.

It is interesting to note that although other silver denominations were minted by the San Francisco mint prior to 1908, no USA/Philippine minor coinage (cents or nickels) was produced there. No minor coinage could be produced at any of the branch mints until 1906 when the US Congress passed a bill specifically allowing it. The increased demand for minor coinage in the Western United Sates paved the way for the minting of Philippine centavos at the San Francisco Mint. This event also marked the end of centavo production in Philadelphia.

This coin is ALLEN-2.06b which is the over mint mark S/S/S. One S was placed too high, one too low, and the final one in the middle. This variety is recognized by both NGC and PCGS and will be identified as such on their labels.

Allen Varieties
ALLEN-2.06 - Normal date and mint mark.
ALLEN-2.06a - Over mint mark S/S. This variety is recognized by NGC and PCGS.
ALLEN-2.06b - Over mint mark S/S/S & RPD (This coin) - Even more dramatic than ALLEN-2.06a, the mint mark was triple punched (both high and low) and the first 2 digits of the date are doubled. This variety is recognized by NGC and PCGS.

Date acquired: 3/9/2014 (already graded by NGC)

Rev. 2/28/2018
View Coin ALLEN-2.07a 1909-S DDO UNITED STATES 1C 1909 S DDR USA-PHIL ALLEN-2.07a PCGS AU 58 BN Lyman Allen #2.07a (KM #163) – Mintage 1,737,612 (variety mintage unknown)

This variety can be identified by the subtle doubling of the tops of the letters in "UNITED" to the left of the eagle. On this example, the doubling is most notable on the tops of the letters N and I in UNITED. It is very rare and this is the first one I've seen in 10 years of collecting the US Philippine series.

It is interesting to note that Lyman Allen designated this as a Doubled Die Obverse (DDO) since he considered the date side of the coin to be the obverse. PCGS and NGC on the other hand, consider the figure side of the coin to be the obverse and mount the coins in their respecive holders accordingly. Confusingly, PCGS still labeled the coin using Allen's DDO designation rather than changing it to DDR.

Based on Clarence Ransom Edwards report of 1903, where he describes the obverse as the figure side and reverse as the eagle and shield side, I am posting this coin as recognized by NGC and PCGS.


Varieties:
------------
ALLEN-2.07a - DDR (Allen DDO) - Identified by the subtle doubling of the tops of the letters in "UNITED" to the left of the eagle. This variety is not recognized by NGC but obviously is by PCGS.

Date acquired: 10/25/2013 (already graded by PCGS)

Rev. 12/18/2015
View Coin ALLEN-2.09a 1911-S/S UNITED STATES 1C 1911 S/S USA-PHIL ALLEN-2.09a NGC MS 65 BN Lyman Allen #2.09a (KM #163) - Mintage: 4,803,000

This issue is fairly common, but the S/S variety is quite rare, especially in a high grade.

This particular coin is poorly struck, and exhibits the wood grain planchet effect which is very typical of San Francisco mint bronze coins of this era. The streaking is most obvious on the reverse and runs diagonally through the top left quadrant. The alloy of the planchet was not well mixed which is what produces the streaks when the planchets are produced. The lighter portions may be a harder metal and thus do not flow as readily into the deeper parts of the die, or the planchet may just be thinner in these areas. On the obverse, the letter C in CENTAVOS and the letters FIL in FILIPINAS are poorly struck. On the reverse, the letters TED STA in UNITED STATES and the tip of the eagle's right wing are very poorly struck. Otherwise, the strike is fairly typical for this issue.

I purchased this coin raw on eBay in 2005 as a normal date/mint mark coin and was very pleased to find that it was actually the S/S variety once I received it. I waited 12 years before having it graded, but I'm very pleased with the outcome. To my knowledge, this is the finest example graded by NGC and PCGS has graded only one finer at MS66BN.

NGC has used this coin for the closeup variety photos on the 1911 S/S USA-PHIL 1C ALLEN-2.09a Variety Plus web page.

Allen Varieties
ALLEN-2.09 - Normal Date.
ALLEN-2.09a - S/S - At least two distinct over mint mark varieties exist. This is the more obvious of the two and appears to have a horned S similar to the 1908 S/S. In the second, the under mint mark appears to the right of the dominant block S and the "1" in the date appears doubled to the left at the top. The S/S variety is recognized by both NGC and PCGS.

Date acquired: 7/23/2005 (raw coin)
Date graded: 10/12/2017 (self-submitted to NGC)

Rev. 2/14/2018
View Coin ALLEN-2.13a 1915-S/S UNITED STATES 1C 1915 S/S USA-PHIL ALLEN-2.13a NGC AU 58 BN Lyman Allen #2.13a (KM #163) - 1915 S/S (RPM) Mintage: 2,500,000 (Variety Mintage Unknown)

Given the mintage, it is unclear why the 1915-S is one of the keys to the One Centavo series. None of my reference material provides any explanation as to the low extant population. It is difficult to find in any grade and exceptionally difficult to find a reasonably priced example that has graded AU or above. The 1908S, with a slightly lower mintage is relatively plentiful by comparison. Full red mint state examples seem to be non-existent, and red-brown examples are exceptionally rare. Certified examples graded MS60 and above are predominately brown. It addition to the general rarity of this issue, this particular coin carries a double "S" mint mark making even more rare.

This particular coin exhibits a good strike, light overall even wear, very even brown toning with hints of luster underneath, and no distracting marks or scratches. This specific coin is both the plate coin for the NGC Variety Plus web page and the for the 1915-S One Centavo web page in the NGC Coin Explorer.

Varieties:
-------------
ALLEN-2.13a - S/S (This Coin) This variety was added in the 2012 7th Edition of the U.S./Philippine Coins by Lyman L. Allen, Updated and Edited by Tom Culhane. This variety is recognized by both NGC and PCGS.

Date acquired: 5/16/2011 (already graded by PCGS)
Date graded: 1/14/2013 (crossed to NGC)
Date attributed: 9/28/2016 (resubmitted to NGC)

Rev. 7/26/2020
View Coin ALLEN-2.15c 1917/8-S UNITED STATES 1C 1917/1918 S USA-PHIL ALLEN-2.15c NGC AU 55 BN Lyman Allen #2.15c (KM #163) - Mintage: 7,070,000

This coin was acquired in an ANACS slab already attributed as the 1917/18-S variety with an additional designation on the label that read "plate coin." I believe that this designation indicated that it was the coin pictured in the Allen catalog "U.S./Philippine Coins." I have some regret over losing that designation by submitting to NGC for crossover. The good new though is that it will again be the plate coin in the 8th edition of the book.

Varieties
2.15a - 1917/16 over date in which the 6 is easily discernible under the final 7. This variety is recognized by both PCGS and NGC.
2.15c - 1917/18 over date in which the 8 is easily discernible under the final 7. This variety is recognized by both NGC and PCGS.
Closed 9 - This variety is yet to be cataloged. The bottom of the 9 appears to be closed (like an 8) due to a die break. I have one of these, but have never seen or heard of another, so I am assuming that it is pretty rare.
Date acquired: 2/6/2014 (already graded by ANACS)
Date Crossed: 9/28/2016 (self submitted to NGC)

Rev. 12/4/2020
View Coin ALLEN-2.16a 1918-S Large-S UNITED STATES 1C 1918 S USA-PHIL LARGE S ALLEN-2.16a NGC MS 62 BN Lyman Allen #2.16a (KM #163) - Total Mintage: 11,660,000 ("Large S" Variety mintage unknown)

Depending on the source, there may be as many as 68 distinct varieties for all of the various dates in the US Philippines One Centavo series. The 1918 Large "S" variety is however the most well known and well documented. It is also the only variety deemed significant enough to be specifically included in the NGC One Centavo Registry set definition.

The normal mint mark on these coins is between 1.2 and 1.3 millimeters tall and is centered between the dot and the rim. The "S" on the Large "S" variety is 2.0 millimeters tall and based on the size and shape, appears to have been produced using the punch intended for the Fifty Centavo pieces of the same year. A 1918 S Medium "S" variety with a mint mark measuring 1.5 millimeters in height is also known to exist as well as a Small "S" variety of unknown height.

This particular coin is dark brown Mint State example of this rare variety.

Varieties
------------
ALLEN-2.16a - Large "S"
Medium "S," as yet uncataloged. The "S" mint mark measures 1.5 millimeters in height.
Small "S," as yet uncataloged. The mint mark size is unknown, but noticeably smaller than the normal "S."

Date acquired: 5/25/2021 (already graded by NGC)

Rev. 5/25/2021
View Coin ALLEN-2.16a 1918-S Large-S UNITED STATES 1C 1918 S USA-PHIL LARGE S ALLEN-2.16a NGC AU 58 BN Lyman Allen #2.16a (KM #163) - Total Mintage: 11,660,000 ("Large S" Variety mintage unknown)

Depending on the source, there may be as many as 68 distinct varieties for all of the various dates in the US Philippines One Centavo series. The 1918 Large "S" variety is however the most well known and well documented. It is also the only variety deemed significant enough to be specifically included in the NGC Registry set definition.

The normal mint mark on these coins is between 1.2 and 1.3 millimeters tall and is centered between the dot and the rim. The "S" on the Large "S" variety is 2.0 millimeters tall and based on the size and shape, appears to have been produced using the punch intended for the Fifty Centavo pieces of the same year. A 1918 S Medium "S" variety with a mint mark measuring 1.5 millimeters in height is also known to exist as well as a Small "S" variety of unknown height.

This particular coin is dark brown with hints of red and orange and is a high grade AU example of this rare variety.

Varieties
------------
ALLEN-2.16a - Large "S"
Medium "S," as yet uncataloged. The "S" mint mark measures 1.5 millimeters in height.
Small "S," as yet uncataloged. The mint mark size is unknown, but noticeably smaller than the normal "S."

Date acquired: 3/05/2005 (raw coin)
Date graded: 12/3/2010 (self submitted to NGC)

Rev. 12/9/2015
View Coin ALLEN-2.27b 1930-M RPD (0) UNITED STATES 1C 1930 M USA-PHIL Recut "0" ALLEN-2.27b NGC MS 65 RB Lyman Allen #2.27b (KM #163) - Mintage 5,577,000 (Variety mintage unknown)

This coin represents the RPD or Recut "0" Variety. A remnant of the underlying zero can be seen inside the top loop. High grade examples of the date are fairly common, but full red specimens are rare.

It is reasonably well stuck for a Manila mint issue. There is excellent definition of the hair and facial features on the obverse, but the fingers of the right hand are poorly defined. On the reverse, the left side of the shied is well defined, but the eagle is lacking breast feather definition.

Varieties
------------
ALLEN-2.27 - Normal date and mint mark.
ALLEN-2.27a - M/M over mint mark. This variety is not recognized by either NGC or PCGS.
ALLEN-2.27b - RPD or Recut "0" variety which can be identified by looking at the upper, inner loop of the "0" in the date.

Date acquired: 4/4/2008 (already graded by NGC)

Rev. 5/21/2020
View Coin ALLEN-2.30a 1933-M RPD 9/9 UNITED STATES 1C 1933 9/9 M USA-PHIL ALLEN-2.30a NGC MS 63 RB Lyman Allen #2.30a (KM #163) - Mintage: 8,392,692

The one centavo was the only denomination struck at the Manila mint in 1933, which may account for the large number of well struck full red and red brown examples that are still available today.

This particular coin exhibits an average strike and high point detail for this date. The color is a nice red brown. I acquired it in an ANACS slab graded MS62RB already attributed as the Allen variety. Crossed to NGC with an upgrade!

Varieties
------------
ALLEN-2.30a - Repunched Date (RP9). - This coin

Date acquired: 9/7/2008 (Already graded MS62RB by ANACS)
Date crossed: 9/22/2016 (self submitted to NGC )

Rev 9/28/2016
View Coin ALLEN-3.02a 1938-M RPD (1) UNITED STATES 1C 1938/1938 M USA-PHIL ALLEN-3.02a NGC MS 65 RB Lyman Allen #3.02a (KM #179) - Total Mintage: 10,000,000 (Variety mintage unknown)

This coin is noteworthy for so many reasons. 1938 is the first year for the final version of the "M" Manila mint mark. The straight sided M of 1937 did not strike up well and was revised in 1938 to appear as an inverted "W". This particular coin exhibits a typical weak strike for the Manila mint, but the date is well struck and exhibits a very boldly doubled "1" which is definitive of the variety Allen-3.02a. This is the first of this variety to so designated on the label by NGC.

Varieties:
------------
ALLEN-3.02 - Normal date and mint mark.
ALLEN-3.02a - Strongly doubled "1" in the date.

Date acquired: 6/24/2007 (raw coin)
Date graded: 7/8/2021 (self submitted to NGC)

Rev. 8/13/2021
View Coin ALLEN-3.02a 1938-M RPD (1) UNITED STATES 1C 1938 M USA-PHIL Repunched 1 in date ALLEN-3.02a NGC MS 66 RB Lyman Allen #3.02a (KM #179) - Total Mintage: 10,000,000 (Variety mintage unknown)

This coin is noteworthy for so many reasons. 1938 is the first year for the final version of the "M" Manila mint mark. The straight sided M of 1937 did not strike up well and was revised in 1938 to appear as an inverted "W". This particular coin is exceptionally well struck and also exhibits a very boldly doubled "1" in the date which should have been designated as Allen-3.02a on the label. Unfortunately, NGC does not currently recognize this Allen variety and consequently did not identify it as such when the coin was graded.

The vast majority of Commonwealth reverse Centavos minted in Manila are very weakly struck, so it is rare that the banner containing the phrase "Republic of the Philippines" is fully struck. The word "of" on the highest point is almost never present and quite often, the entire left side of the banner is virtually blank. Every word on the banner of this coin is fully stuck and clearly readable. The obverse of this coin is equally well struck. Most notable are the fingers on the man's right hand, followed by his hair, ear, eyes, nose and the toes on his right foot. The only other coins I've seen showing this much obverse detail and definition have been proof coins. It is unfortunate that this quality of reverse strike does not receive the same recognition as Full Head( FH) Standing Liberty quarters or for Full Bell Line(FBL) Franklin Halves. It would be nice if the grading services would add a "Full Banner" (FB) designation for coins bearing the Commonwealth reverse or a "Full Right Hand" (FRH) for the common obverse.

This is the finest struck commonwealth coin I have ever seen with the possible exception of a couple of commemorative coins struck in 1936. There are only two others graded MS66RB and one coin finer in MS66RD but I doubt if any of them are as well struck as this one.

Varieties:
------------
ALLEN-3.02 - Normal date and mint mark.
ALLEN-3.02a - Strongly doubled "1" in the date. This variety is recognized by PCGS, but not by NGC.

Date acquired: 10/04/2009 (raw coin)
Date graded: 9/26/2012 (self submitted, encapsulated in the NGC Scratch Resistant Holder)
Date regraded: 9/25/2018 ( resubmitted to MS at NGC. MS65RB ==> MS66RB)

Rev. 9/25/2018
View Coin ALLEN-3.06a 1944-S DDR #1 UNITED STATES 1C 1944 S DDR USA-PHIL ALLEN-3.06a NGC MS 65 RB Lyman Allen #3.06a (KM #179) - Official Mintage: 58,000,000 - Mint records indicate an additional mintage of 78,485,798 centavos in 1945, but there is no indication that they were dated 1945. No centavos dated 1945 have ever been reported and there is no indication that the centavos minted in 1945 were destroyed. Taking into account their extraordinary availability, it is most likely that these centavos were actually dated 1944. That would bring the total mintage for 1944-S centavos to 136,485,798.

The Manila Mint sustained heavy damage on December 7, 1941 from Japanese aerial bombardment and additional damage in 1945 during the Battle of Manila which liberated the city. During the Japanese occupation, much of the coinage was seized and melted. In preparation for the liberation of the islands, the Treasury department ordered the Mint to strike all denominations from the one centavo through 50 centavos. While all three active mints were utilized for the task, the one centavo coins were only struck in San Francisco. This is the only Commonwealth obverse One Centavo to be produced in San Francisco, yet, with over 136 million minted, this one date figure comes close to the entire one centavo production of the Manila mint!

Another unique aspect of this centavo is the change in its metallic composition exclusive to this year. Due to the war, this centavo was made without tin. Instead, it is composed of 95% copper and 5% zinc.

Given the quantity minted, all levels of strike quality can be found. Many however can be found with a near perfect strike, including the word "of" in the scroll just above the date. As one might expect with a mintage this high, red gem pieces are relatively easy to obtain. This particular coin is an exceptionally well struck cherry red example of the rarest of the varieties for this date. The characteristics of the doubled die obverse #1 are listed below.

A common side effect of high mintage is often a significant number of identifiable varieties and the 1944-S Centavo is no exception. There are at least 4 well known varieties for this date detailed below.

NGC has used this coin for the closeup variety photos on the 1944 S USA-PHIL 1C ALLEN-3.06a Variety Plus web page. As of this revision, NGC has graded only this coin, and PCGS has graded two at this grade with none finer.

Varieties
------------
ALLEN-3.06 - Normal date and mint mark.
ALLEN-3.06a - Doubled Die Obverse #1. The word "STATES" is noticeably doubled. This variety is recognized by both PCGS and NGC.
ALLEN-3.06aa - Doubled Die Obverse #2. There is doubling of the letters "IPPINES" in the scroll as well as of the scroll itself. The letters "AMERICA" (most noticeably the "M" and "C") are also doubled. This variety is recognized by both PCGS and NGC.
ALLEN-3.06b - Base of last 4 missing at left side. This variety is recognized by PCGS but not by NGC.
Uncatalogued. - Triple punched last 4 in date. This variety is relatively well known, but has not been identified in the Allen catalog. It is not recognized by any of the major grading services. I have several of these and they are quite easy to recognize.

Date acquired: 11/21/2006 (raw coin)
Date graded: 10/12/2017 (self submitted to NGC)

References:
- Shafer, N. "United States Territorial Coinage for the Philippine Islands." Racine, Wisconsin: Whitman Publishing Company, 1961.

Rev. 9/17/2020
View Coin ALLEN-3.06aa 1944-S DDR #2 UNITED STATES 1C 1944 S DDR USA-PHIL ALLEN-3.06aa NGC MS 65 RD Lyman Allen #3.06aa (KM #179) - Official Mintage: 58,000,000 - Mint records indicate an additional mintage of 78,485,798 centavos in 1945, but there is no indication that they were dated 1945. No centavos dated 1945 have ever been reported and there is no indication that the centavos minted in 1945 were destroyed. Taking into account their extraordinary availability, it is most likely that these centavos were actually dated 1944. That would bring the total mintage for 1944-S centavos to 136,485,798.

The Manila Mint sustained heavy damage on December 7, 1941 from Japanese aerial bombardment and additional damage in 1945 during the Battle of Manila which liberated the city. During the Japanese occupation, much of the coinage was seized and melted. In preparation for the liberation of the islands, the Treasury department ordered the Mint to strike all denominations from the one centavo through 50 centavos. While all three active mints were utilized for the task, the one centavo coins were only struck in San Francisco. This is the only Commonwealth obverse One Centavo to be produced in San Francisco, yet, with over 136 million minted, this one date figure comes close to the entire one centavo production of the Manila mint!

Another unique aspect of this centavo is the change in its metallic composition exclusive to this year. Due to the war, this centavo was made without tin. Instead, it is composed of 95% copper and 5% zinc.

Given the quantity minted, all levels of strike quality can be found. Many however can be found with a near perfect strike, including the word "of" in the scroll just above the date. As one might expect with a mintage this high, red gem pieces are relatively easy to obtain. This particular coin is an exceptionally well struck cherry red example of the rarest of the varieties for this date. The characteristics of the doubled die obverse #2 are listed below.

A common side effect of high mintage is often a significant number of identifiable varieties and the 1944-S Centavo is no exception. There are at least 4 well known varieties for this date detailed below.

Varieties
------------
ALLEN-3.06 - Normal date and mint mark.
ALLEN-3.06a - Doubled Die Obverse #1. The word "STATES" is noticeably doubled. This variety is recognized by both PCGS and NGC.
ALLEN-3.06aa - Doubled Die Obverse #2. There is doubling of the letters "IPPINES" in the scroll as well as of the scroll itself. The letters "AMERICA" (most noticeably the "M" and "C") are also doubled. This variety is recognized by both PCGS and NGC.
ALLEN-3.06b - Base of last 4 missing at left side. This variety is recognized by PCGS but not by NGC.
Uncatalogued. - Triple punched last 4 in date. This variety is relatively well known, but has not been identified in the Allen catalog. It is not recognized by any of the major grading services. I have several of these and they are quite easy to recognize.

Date acquired: 4/26/2013 (already graded by ANACS)
Date crossed: 9/28/2016 (self submitted to NGC)

References:
- Shafer, N. "United States Territorial Coinage for the Philippine Islands." Racine, Wisconsin: Whitman Publishing Company, 1961.

Rev. 9/17/2020
View Coin ALLEN-3.06aa 1944-S DDR #2 UNITED STATES 1C 1944 S DDR USA-PHIL ALLEN-3.06aa NGC MS 65 RD Lyman Allen #3.06aa (KM #179) - 1944 S DDR #2 - Official Mintage: 58,000,000 - Mint records indicate an additional mintage of 78,485,798 centavos in 1945, but there is no indication that they were dated 1945. No centavos dated 1945 have ever been reported and there is no indication that the centavos minted in 1945 were destroyed. Taking into account their extraordinary availability, it is most likely that these centavos were actually dated 1944. That would bring the total mintage for 1944-S centavos to 136,485,798.

The Manila Mint sustained heavy damage on December 7, 1941 from Japanese aerial bombardment and additional damage in 1945 during the Battle of Manila which liberated the city. During the Japanese occupation, much of the coinage was seized and melted. In preparation for the liberation of the islands, the Treasury department ordered the Mint to strike all denominations from the one centavo through 50 centavos. While all three active mints were utilized for the task, the one centavo coins were only struck in San Francisco. This is the only Commonwealth obverse One Centavo to be produced in San Francisco, yet, with over 136 million minted, this one date figure comes close to the entire one centavo production of the Manila mint!

Another unique aspect of this centavo is the change in its metallic composition exclusive to this year. Due to the war, this centavo was made without tin. Instead, it is composed of 95% copper and 5% zinc.

Given the quantity minted, all levels of strike quality can be found. Many however can be found with a near perfect strike, including the word "of" in the scroll just above the date. As one might expect with a mintage this high, red gem pieces are relatively easy to obtain. This particular coin is an exceptionally well struck cherry red example of the rarest of the varieties for this date. The characteristics of the doubled die obverse #2 are listed below.

A common side effect of high mintage is often a significant number of identifiable varieties and the 1944-S Centavo is no exception. There are at least 4 well known varieties for this date detailed below. This being the 3.06aa variety.

As an interesting note, this is the coin that NGC now uses as their plate coin in NGC Coin Explorer.

Varieties
------------
ALLEN-3.06 - Normal date and mint mark.
ALLEN-3.06a - Doubled Die Obverse #1. The word "STATES" is noticeably doubled. This variety is recognized by both PCGS and NGC.
ALLEN-3.06aa - Doubled Die Obverse #2. There is doubling of the letters "IPPINES" in the scroll as well as of the scroll itself. The letters "AMERICA" (most noticeably the "M" and "C") are also doubled. This variety is recognized by both PCGS and NGC.
ALLEN-3.06b - Base of last 4 missing at left side. This variety is recognized by PCGS but not by NGC.
Uncatalogued. - Triple punched last 4 in date. This variety is relatively well known, but has not been identified in the Allen catalog. It is not recognized by any of the major grading services. I have several of these and they are quite easy to recognize.

Date acquired: 5/17/2008 raw coin)
Date crossed: 7/8/2021 (self submitted to NGC)

References:
- Shafer, N. "United States Territorial Coinage for the Philippine Islands." Racine, Wisconsin: Whitman Publishing Company, 1961.

Rev. 8/13/2021
View Coin ALLEN-3.06b 1944-S Broken Base 4 UNITED STATES 1C 1944 S USA-PHIL Broken Base "4" ALLEN-3.06b PCGS MS 66 RD Lyman Allen #3.06b (KM #179) - Official Mintage: 58,000,000 - Mint records indicate an additional mintage of 78,485,798 centavos in 1945, but there is no indication that they were dated 1945. No centavos dated 1945 have ever been reported and there is no indication that the centavos minted in 1945 were destroyed. Taking into account their extraordinary availability, it is most likely that these centavos were actually dated 1944. That would bring the total mintage for 1944-S centavos to 136,485,798.

The Manila Mint sustained heavy damage on December 7, 1941 from Japanese aerial bombardment and additional damage in 1945 during the Battle of Manila which liberated the city. During the Japanese occupation, much of the coinage was seized and melted. In preparation for the liberation of the islands, the Treasury department ordered the Mint to strike all denominations from the one centavo through 50 centavos. While all three active mints were utilized for the task, the one centavo coins were only struck in San Francisco. This is the only Commonwealth obverse One Centavo to be produced in San Francisco, yet, with over 136 million minted, this one date figure comes close to the entire one centavo production of the Manila mint!

The 1944S typically exhibits near perfect strike, which even includes the word "of" in the scroll just above the date. As one might expect with a mintage this high, red, gem pieces are relatively easy to obtain.

A common side effect of high mintage is often a significant number of identifiable varieties and the 1944-S Centavo is no exception. There are at least 4 well known varieties for this date detailed below.

Varieties
------------
ALLEN-3.06 - Normal date and mint mark.
ALLEN-3.06a - Doubled Die Obverse #1. The word "STATES" is noticeably doubled. This variety is not recognized by either PCGS or NGC.
ALLEN-3.06aa - Doubled Die Obverse #2. There is doubling of the letters "IPPINES" in the scroll as well as of the scroll itself. The letters "AMERICA" (most noticeably the "M" and "C") are also doubled. This variety is not recognized by either PCGS or NGC.
ALLEN-3.06b - Base of last 4 missing at left side. This variety is not recognized by either PCGS or NGC.
Uncataloged. - Triple punched last 4 in date. This variety is relatively well known, but has not been identified in the Allen catalog. It is not recognized by any of the major grading services. I have several of these and they are quite easy to recognize.

Although it is not indicated on the label of the holder, this particular coin is a reasonably well struck, red example of one of the more common varieties. Allen 3.06b is identified by the missing left side of the base of the second "4" in the date.

Date acquired: 7/18/2011 (Already graded by PCGS)

References:
- Shafer, N. "United States Territorial Coinage for the Philippine Islands." Racine, Wisconsin: Whitman Publishing Company, 1961.

Rev. 11/28/2015
View Coin ALLEN-3.06b 1944-S Broken Base 4 UNITED STATES 1C 1944 S USA-PHIL Broken Base "4" ALLEN-3.06b PCGS MS 67 RD Lyman Allen #3.06b (KM #179) - Official Mintage: 58,000,000 - Mint records indicate an additional mintage of 78,485,798 centavos in 1945, but there is no indication that they were dated 1945. No centavos dated 1945 have ever been reported and there is no indication that the centavos minted in 1945 were destroyed. Taking into account their extraordinary availability, it is most likely that these centavos were actually dated 1944. That would bring the total mintage for 1944-S centavos to 136,485,798.

The Manila Mint sustained heavy damage on December 7, 1941 from Japanese aerial bombardment and additional damage in 1945 during the Battle of Manila which liberated the city. During the Japanese occupation, much of the coinage was seized and melted. In preparation for the liberation of the islands, the Treasury department ordered the Mint to strike all denominations from the one centavo through 50 centavos. While all three active mints were utilized for the task, the one centavo coins were only struck in San Francisco. This is the only Commonwealth obverse One Centavo to be produced in San Francisco, yet, with over 136 million minted, this one date figure comes close to the entire one centavo production of the Manila mint!

Another unique aspect of this centavo is the change in its metallic composition exclusive to this year. Due to the war, this centavo was made without tin. Instead, it is composed of 95% copper and 5% zinc.

Given the quantity minted, all levels of strike quality can be found. Many however can be found with a near perfect strike, including the word "of" in the scroll just above the date. As one might expect with a mintage this high, red gem pieces are relatively easy to obtain. This particular coin is an exceptionally well struck full red MS67 example of this otherwise very common date variety.

A common side effect of high mintage is often a significant number of identifiable varieties and the 1944-S Centavo is no exception. There are at least 4 well known varieties for this date detailed below.

Varieties
------------
ALLEN-3.06 - Normal date and mint mark.
ALLEN-3.06a - Doubled Die Reverse #1. The word "STATES" is noticeably doubled. This variety is not recognized by either PCGS or NGC.
ALLEN-3.06aa - Doubled Die Reverse #2. There is doubling of the letters "IPPINES" in the scroll as well as of the scroll itself. The letters "AMERICA" (most noticeably the "M" and "C") are also doubled. This variety is not recognized by either PCGS or NGC.
ALLEN-3.06b - Base of last 4 missing at left side. This variety is not recognized by either PCGS or NGC.
Uncataloged. - Triple punched last 4 in date. This variety is relatively well known, but has not been identified in the Allen catalog. It is not recognized by any of the major grading services. I have several of these and they are quite easy to recognize.

Date acquired: 7/24/2016 (Already graded by PCGS)

References:
- Shafer, N. "United States Territorial Coinage for the Philippine Islands." Racine, Wisconsin: Whitman Publishing Company, 1961.

Rev. 8/2/2016
View Coin ALLEN-4.08aa 1918-S/S UNITED STATES 5C 1918 S/S USA-PHIL ALLEN-4.08aa NGC AU 58 Lyman Allen #4.08aa (KM #164) - 5 Centavos - Mintage: 2,780,000 (Variety mintage unknown)

This is the doubled mint mark, or 1918S/S 5 Centavos, which is very subtle and very rare. The original S mint mark appears very far to the left of the dominant secondary S. This coin is the only one graded by NGC and is the coin used for the variety photos on the 1918 S/S USA-PHIL 5C A-4.08aa Variety Plus web page.

Allen Varieties
4.08 - Normal die pair
4.08a - Re-punched date
4.08aa - S/S Re-punched mint mark (this coin)
4.08b - 5 Centavo reverse muled with 20 Centavo obverse

Date acquired: 5/1/2014 (raw coin)
Date graded: 10/12/2017 (self-submitted to NGC)

Rev. 2/14/2018
View Coin ALLEN-4.08b 1918-S 5 Centavo reverse muled with 20 Centavo obverse UNITED STATES 5C 1918 S USA-PHIL MULED WITH 20C REVERSE ALLEN-4.08b NGC F 15 Lyman Allen #4.08b (KM #173) - 5 Centavo obverse muled with 20 Centavo reverse
Regular Mintage: 2,780,000 (variety mintage unknown)

This coin is a mule of the 1918-S 20 Centavo reverse die with the 5 Centavo obverse on a copper-nickel 5 Centavo planchet. Unlike the 1928-M 20 Centavo mule which was intentionally struck, this mule was not and consequently very few examples exist. The 5 centavo dies were only 0.5mm smaller than the 20 centavo dies in 1918, and the reverse designs were also very similar, so it's easy to see how this mule could have been inadvertently created. The most distinctive difference between the two is the size of the date. The date on the normal 5 Centavo reverse is much larger. The shield on the normal 5 Centavos coin is also broader than that of the mule.

This is one of the key coins to the entire US/Philippine series. I purchased this coin very early on in my collecting of US/Philippine coins, and it was already in an old style ANACS holder with a grade of F12. It's not a high grade example, but it has not been cleaned or otherwise tampered with as so many US/Philippine coins have. I debated almost 10 years before deciding to send it to NGC for crossover. In the end, I'm glad I did, but the new policy of removing the coin from the ANACS holder before evaluating it is a pretty scary proposition.

It is interesting to note the the obverse appears to have been struck through a small piece of wire or fiber which can be seen running across the male figures left ankle and right knee. The obverse also seems to be more worn than the reverse. I was hoping for an upgrade to VF20 based on the reverse, but the obverse is probably correctly graded at F15.

Allen Varieties
4.08 - Normal die pair
4.08a - Re-punched date
4.08aa - S/S Re-punched mint mark
4.08b - 5 Centavo reverse muled with 20 Centavo obverse (this coin)

Date acquired: 2/8/2005 (Already graded by ANACS)
Date crossed: 9/12/2014 (self submitted to NGC)

Rev. 2/14/2018
View Coin ALLEN-4.08b 1918-S 5 Centavo reverse muled with 20 Centavo obverse UNITED STATES 5C 1918 S USA-PHIL MULED WITH 20C REVERSE ALLEN-4.08b NGC XF Details Lyman Allen #4.08b (KM #173) - 5 Centavo obverse muled with 20 Centavo reverse
Regular Mintage: 2,780,000 (variety mintage unknown)

This is one of the key coins to the entire US/Philippine series. I purchased this coin raw in 2006 and finally sent it in for grading seven years later. Unfortunately this coin, like many other US/Philippine coins has been cleaned, leaving hairline scratches on the surface.

This coin is a mule of the 1918-S 20 Centavo reverse die with the 5 Centavo obverse on a copper-nickel 5 Centavo planchet. Unlike the 1928-M 20 Centavo mule which was intentionally struck, this mule was not and consequently very few examples exist. The 5 centavo dies were only 0.5mm smaller than the 20 centavo dies in 1918, and the reverse designs were also very similar, so it's easy to see how this mule could have been inadvertently created. The most distinctive difference between the two is the size of the date. The date on the normal 5 Centavo reverse is much larger. The shield on the normal 5 Centavos coin is also broader than that of the mule.

Allen Varieties
-------------------------------------------------
4.08 - Normal die pair
4.08a - Re-punched date
4.08aa - S/S Re-punched mint mark
4.08b - 5 Centavo obverse muled with 20 Centavo reverse - this coin

Date acquired: 5/13/2006 (raw coin)
Date graded: 8/7/2013 (self submitted to NGC)

Rev. 12/21/2015
View Coin ALLEN-5.04b 1934-M RPD (1) & DDR #2 UNITED STATES 5C 1934 M USA-PHIL DDR & RP 1 ALLEN-5.04aa NGC MS 63 Lyman Allen #5.04aa (KM #175) - Mintage: 2,153,729 (variety mintage unknown)

This coin is a nice example of a surprisingly difficult date. Not only that, it is the DDR variety with the repunched "1" in the date and the doubled letters in "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA"! This was an unexpected benefit of this auction win. This variety is recognized by NGC.

Varieties:
------------
ALLEN-5.04 - Normal date and mint mark.
ALLEN-5.04a - Repunched 1 in the date.
ALLEN-5.04aa - Doubled Die Reverse "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" and Repunched 1 in the date.

Date acquired: 6/26/2014 (Already graded by NGC)
Date re-holdered: 9/28/2016 (submitted to NGC for Variety Plus attribution)

Rev. 10/14/2017
View Coin ALLEN-8.04c 1908-S Inverted S UNITED STATES 10C 1908 S USA-PHIL Inverted "S" ALLEN-8.04c PCGS Genuine Lyman Allen #8.04c - Inverted S mint mark. (KM #169) - Mintage: 3,363,911 (total)

This otherwise AU specimen was graded "Genuine (97 - Environmental Damage)" by PCGS. This variety is quite rare. I was very pleased to obtain this example even though it could only receive a "Genuine" grade.

Varieties:
--------------------------
ALLEN-8.04 - Normal date.
ALLEN-8.04a - Over mint mark S/S
ALLEN-8.04b - Re-punched Date (RPD) (removed from the 6th edition of Lyman Allen's book)
ALLEN-8.04c - Inverted S mint mark - (this coin)

Date acquired: 5/30/2010 (already graded by PCGS)

Rev. 12/21/2015
View Coin ALLEN-8.10b 1914-S Long Bar 4 UNITED STATES 10C 1914 S USA-PHIL Long Bar 4 ALLEN-8.10b NGC MS 63 Lyman Allen #8.10b (KM #169) - Mintage: 1,180,000 (both types)

General
The 1914 issue is interesting in that there is no normal date designated as 8.10. Every 1914-S Ten Centavo piece has either a short tail on the crossbar of the 4 (8.10a) or a long tail on the crossbar of the 4 (8.10b).

The U.S. Mint only published die life information for nine different years, and the information for the 1914 ten centavos was very enlightening. In most case, the number of obverse and reverse dies are equal or very nearly so. In this case however, the Philadelphia mint supplied 17 obverse dies and 24 reverse dies.This means that, on average, 71,387 were struck with each obverse die and only 48,532 with each reverse die. Monthly mintage information is illusive from May 1913 through November 1914, but we do know that 470,000 were struck in December and based on the annual mint report for fiscal year 1915, December was the only month in the last half of 1914 in which ten centavos were minted. The remaining 710,000 must have been minted in the first half of 1914. It is quite likely that a matched sets of dies were sent to the San Francisco mint early in the year, and that replacement reverse dies were sent later in the year as these dies failed. Based on a comparison of the "4" in the date on the twenty centavos (which has a short bar) with the 4's on the ten centavos, it is my opinion that the short bar dies were the ones originally sent to San Francisco early in the year, and that the long bar version only appeared on the replacement dies used in December. That would imply that the the long bar variety should be a bit more rare than the short bar variety. PCGS treats these varieties explicitly and every 1914 ten centavos is recorded as either Allen-8.04a or 8.04b. There is no generically designated Allen-8.04. The PCGS population statistics support my opinion with four times as many of the short bar variety graded as those with a long bar. This would imply that some of the short bar reverse dies were still available and were used in December 1914.

While studying the dates on this coin, I also noticed that the digits in the dates on both types of the 1914 coins were much more spread out that those in either 1913 or 1915. The digits in those dates were more tightly packed together and centered.

All 1914 ten and twenty centavos coins were struck from silver reclaimed in the Philippines. This being either 1903-1906 U.S. Philippine silver coinage withdrawn from circulation or earlier Mexican/Philippine coinage. This was the limiting factor on the number of coins produced for this year.

An important event must be noted. World War I began on July 8th and while the Philippine Islands would not be directly involved, the war would prove to have a profound impact on all future U.S. Philippine coinage.

This Coin
This coin was purchased as an NGC graded, but unattributed coin. After about one year of ownership, I submitted it to NGC for attribution. This is a well struck coin and was probably minted from relatively fresh dies. Note the sharp detail in the hair, center line garment folds, and toes on the left foot of the female figure on the obverse. On the reverse, the wing tip feathers, eagles breast feathers, stars, and lines in the shield are also very rich in detail. On both sides of the coin, the peripheral lettering is sharp and clear and there is no bleeding of the letters into the denticles. Overall, a very nice coin. If not for a couple of small scratches, this coin would have been an MS64 or MS65. Based on the PCGS statistics, the long bar variety probably only constitutes 20-25% of the total mintage and that rarity should be reflected in pricing.

Varieties:
ALLEN-8.10a - Short Bar 4 in the date.
ALLEN-8.10b - Long Bar 4 in the date. (this coin)

Date acquired: 8/27/2015 (Already graded by NGC)
Date attributed: 9/28/2016 (resubmitted to NGC for attribution)

References
- Shafer, N. "United States Territorial Coinage for the Philippine Islands." Racine, Wisconsin: Whitman Publishing Company, 1961.

Rev. 11/26/2020
View Coin ALLEN-9.04a 1944-D/D UNITED STATES 10C 1944 D/D USA-PHIL ALLEN-9.04a NGC MS 64 Lyman Allen #9.04a RPM (KM #181) - Mintage: 31,592,000 (Variety mintage unknown)

General
------------------------------------------------
The Denver mint produced nearly 10 times as many 10 Centavo coins in 1944 as the Manila Mint commonly had in it's most prolific years. As substantial as that mintage is, it's nothing compared to what was to come in 1945. The high mintage of coins in 1944 and 1945 was necessary since virtually all previously issued coinage had disappeared during the Japanese occupation. Because of the high demand, dies were used well beyond their normal life and pieces struck from highly eroded dies are very common.

High mintage figures often imply common coins, but also provide the opportunity for several collectable varieties! With 31,592,000 minted by the US Mint in Denver, it's not surprising that there are a number of die varieties. Lyman Allen lists three in addition to the normal date:

Varieties
------------------------------------------------
9.04 - Normal date

9.04a - Repunched mint mark D/D. Even within this variety, at least 4 sub-types exist with various orientations of the initial and secondary mint mark punches. Over the years, I have acquired examples of North-South (near), North-South (far), West-East, and Southeast-Northwest orientations.

9.04aa - Repunched mint mark D/D/D. The mint mark is dramatically repeated three times with the first far north, the second to the south, and the third and dominant "D" in the normal position.

9.04b - Repunched 9. This is the only 10 Centavo Allen variety that I do not personally have an example of, so I am unable to describe it further.

This Coin
------------------------------------------------
This particular coin is the North-South (far) RPM variety. It is a well preserved specimen and only one has been graded higher by NGC. The strike is not particularly strong, and the banner is incomplete.

Date acquired: 5/26/2015 (Already graded by NGC)

Rev. 5/26/2015
View Coin ALLEN-9.05a 1945-D/D UNITED STATES 10C 1945 D/D USA-PHIL ALLEN-9.05a NGC MS 66 Lyman Allen #9.05a (KM #181) - D/D repunched mint mark. Mintage 137,208,000

General
The 1945D 10 Centavo piece has the highest mintage of any US/Philippine era coin, and is one of only two issues exceeding a mintage of 100,000,000 (the other being the 1944S One Centavo which was minted in both 1944 and 1945, but only dated 1944). The high mintage of coins in 1944 and 1945 was necessary since virtually all previously issued coinage had disappeared during the Japanese occupation. Because of the high demand, dies were used well beyond their normal life and pieces struck from highly eroded dies are very common.

High mintage figures often imply common coins, but also provide the opportunity for some highly collectable varieties! With 137,208,000 minted by the US Mint in Denver, it's not surprising that there are a number of die varieties. The Allen Catalog lists three in addition to the normal date:

This Coin
This particular 9.05a is a bright white gem with a South-North (far) orientation doubled mint mark. The reverse exhibits a typical weak strike on the sea lion and the word "OF" in the banner, but is otherwise reasonably well struck.

Varieties
9.05 - Normal date

9.05a - Repunched mint mark D/D (This Coin) Even within this variety, at least 4 sub-types exist with various orientations of the initial and secondary mint mark punches. Over the years, I have acquired examples of North-South (near), South-North (far), South-North (near), and Northwest-Southeast orientations.

9.05b - Doubled Die Reverse type 1. This variety is easily identified by the dramatic doubling of "UNITED", "STATES", all four digits of the date, and the bottom tip of the shield.

9.05c - Doubled Die Reverse type 2. This doubled die variety is not nearly as dramatic as 9.05b, but can still be identified with minimal magnification. There is a very slight doubling of "45" in the date, doubling of all of the letters in "UNITED", doubling of the letters "STAT" in STATES, and slight doubling of the letters "MER" in AMERICA.

In addition to the three varieties that have been cataloged, there is at least one other significant reverse doubled die variety in which all of the "P"s in the scroll text of "COMMONWEALTH OF THE PHILIPPINES" are very noticeably doubled.

Date acquired: 8/8/2014 (Already graded by NGC)

References
- Shafer, N. "United States Territorial Coinage for the Philippine Islands." Racine, Wisconsin: Whitman Publishing Company, 1961.

Rev. 11/17/2020
View Coin ALLEN-9.05a 1945-D/D UNITED STATES 10C 1945 D/D USA-PHIL ALLEN-9.05a PCGS MS 65 Lyman Allen #9.05a (KM #181) - D/D repunched mint mark. Mintage 137,208,000

General
------------------------------------------------
The 1945D 10 Centavo piece has the highest mintage of any of US/Philippine era coin, and is one of only two issues exceeding a mintage of 100,000,000 (the other being the 1944S One Centavo which was minted in both 1944 and 1945, but only dated 1944). The high mintage of coins in 1944 and 1945 was necessary since virtually all previously issued coinage had disappeared during the Japanese occupation. Because of the high demand, dies were used well beyond their normal life and pieces struck from highly eroded dies are very common.

High mintage figures often imply common coins, but also provide the opportunity for some highly collectable varieties! With 137,208,000 minted by the US Mint in Denver, it's not surprising that there are a number of die varieties. Lyman Allen lists three in addition to the normal date:

Varieties
------------------------------------------------
9.05 - Normal date

9.05a - Repunched mint mark D/D (This Coin) Even within this variety, at least 4 sub-types exist with various orientations of the initial and secondary mint mark punches. Over the years, I have acquired examples of North-South (near), South-North (far), South-North (near), and Northwest-Southeast orientations.

9.05b - Doubled Die REverse type 1. This variety is easily identified by the dramatic doubling of "UNITED", "STATES", all four digits of the date, and the bottom tip of the shield.

9.05c - Doubled Die Reverse type 2. This doubled die variety is not nearly as dramatic as 9.05b, but can still be identified with minimal magnification. There is a very slight doubling of "45" in the date, doubling of all of the letters in "UNITED", doubling of the letters "STAT" in STATES, and slight doubling of the letters "MER" in AMERICA.

In addition to the three varieties that have been cataloged, there is at least one other significant reverse doubled die variety in which all of the "P"s in the scroll text of "COMMONWEALTH OF THE PHILIPPINES" are very noticeably doubled.

This Coin
------------------------------------------------
This particular 9.05a is a toned Gem with a South-North (far) orientation doubled mint mark. The toning is a subtle and even combination of electric blue with orange and gold highlights. The toning is much more dramatic than the scanned images can convey.

Date acquired: 5/23/2011 (Already graded by PCGS)

Rev. 12/18/2015
View Coin ALLEN-9.05a 1945-D/D UNITED STATES 10C 1945 D/D USA-PHIL ALLEN-9.05a NGC MS 62 Lyman Allen #9.05a (KM #181) - D/D repunched mint mark. Mintage 137,208,000

General
------------------------------------------------
The 1945D 10 Centavo piece has the highest mintage of any of US/Philippine era coin, and is one of only two issues exceeding a mintage of 100,000,000 (the other being the 1944S One Centavo which was minted in both 1944 and 1945, but only dated 1944). The high mintage of coins in 1944 and 1945 was necessary since virtually all previously issued coinage had disappeared during the Japanese occupation. Because of the high demand, dies were used well beyond their normal life and pieces struck from highly eroded dies are very common.

High mintage figures often imply common coins, but also provide the opportunity for some highly collectable varieties! With 137,208,000 minted by the US Mint in Denver, it's not surprising that there are a number of die varieties. Lyman Allen lists three in addition to the normal date:

Varieties
------------------------------------------------
9.05 - Normal date

9.05a - Re-punched mint mark D/D (This Coin) Even within this variety, at least 4 sub-types exist with various orientations of the initial and secondary mint mark punches. Over the years, I have acquired examples of North-South (near), South-North (far), South-North (near), and Northwest-Southeast orientations.

9.05b - Doubled Die reverse type 1. This variety is easily identified by the dramatic doubling of "UNITED", "STATES", all four digits of the date, and the bottom tip of the shield.

9.05c - Doubled Die reverse type 2. This doubled die variety is not nearly as dramatic as 9.05b, but can still be identified with minimal magnification. There is a very slight doubling of "45" in the date, doubling of all of the letters in "UNITED", doubling of the letters "STAT" in STATES, and slight doubling of the letters "MER" in AMERICA.

In addition to the three varieties that have been cataloged, there is at least one other significant reverse doubled die variety in which all of the "P"s in the scroll text of "COMMONWEALTH OF THE PHILIPPINES" are very noticeably doubled.

This Coin
------------------------------------------------
This particular 9.05a is a white coin with a North-South orientation doubled mint mark which very clearly shows the underlying "D." Unfortunately, when the coin was placed in the holder, the underlying min mark is almost completely covered by the prong of the insert. The picture of the reverse shown above was take before the coin was sent in for grading. I really need to send it back to be re-holdered with a slight rotation so the most interesting aspect of the coin won't be covered up.

Date acquired: 3/19/2013 (raw coin)
Date graded: 8/7/2013 (self submitted to NGC)

Rev. 12/18/2015
View Coin ALLEN-9.05b 1945-D DBL DIE #1 UNITED STATES 10C 1945 D DDR USA-PHIL ALLEN-9.05b NGC MS 63 Lyman Allen #9.05b (KM #181) - Doubled Die Type #1. Total Mintage: 137,208,000 (variety mintage unknown)

General
------------------------------------------------
The 1945D 10 Centavo piece has the highest mintage of any US/Philippine era coin, and is one of only two issues exceeding a mintage of 100,000,000 (the other being the 1944S One Centavo which was minted in both 1944 and 1945, but only dated 1944). The high mintage of coins in 1944 and 1945 was necessary since virtually all previously issued coinage had disappeared during the Japanese occupation. Because of the high demand, dies were used well beyond their normal life and pieces struck from highly eroded dies are very common.

High mintage figures often imply common coins, but also provide the opportunity for some highly collectable varieties! With 137,208,000 minted by the US Mint in Denver, it's not surprising that there are a number of die varieties. Lyman Allen lists three in addition to the normal date:

Varieties
------------------------------------------------
9.05 - Normal date

9.05a - Repunched mint mark D/D (This Coin) Even within this variety, at least 4 sub-types exist with various orientations of the initial and secondary mint mark punches. Over the years, I have acquired examples of North-South (near), South-North (far), South-North (near), and Northwest-Southeast orientations.

9.05b - Doubled Die Obverse type 1. This variety is easily identified by the dramatic doubling of "UNITED", "STATES", all four digits of the date, and the bottom tip of the shield.

9.05c - Doubled Die Obverse type 2. This doubled die variety is not nearly as dramatic as 9.05b, but can still be identified with minimal magnification. There is a very slight doubling of "45" in the date, doubling of all of the letters in "UNITED", doubling of the letters "STAT" in STATES, and slight doubling of the letters "MER" in AMERICA.

In addition to the three varieties that have been cataloged, there is at least one other significant obverse doubled die variety in which all of the "P"s in the scroll text of "COMMONWEALTH OF THE PHILIPPINES" are very noticeably doubled.

This Coin
------------------------------------------------
This particular 9.05b exhibits a very full strike (including the word "of" just above the date) even though it was obviously struck from a heavily used pair of dies. The erosion lines emanating from the tips of the letters to the rim of the coin are easily visible without magnification. This coin was the first uncirculated example of this dramatic double die graded by NGC.

Date acquired: 9/24/2006 (raw coin)
Date graded: 12/01/2007 (self submitted to NGC)

Rev. 11/29/2015
View Coin ALLEN-9.05c 1945-D DBL DIE #2 UNITED STATES 10C 1945 D DDR USA-PHIL ALLEN-9.05c NGC AU 58 Lyman Allen #9.05c (KM #181) - Doubled Die Type #2. Total Mintage: 137,208,000 (variety mintage unknown)

General
------------------------------------------------
The 1945D 10 Centavo piece has the highest mintage of any US/Philippine era coin, and is one of only two issues exceeding a mintage of 100,000,000 (the other being the 1944S One Centavo which was minted in both 1944 and 1945, but only dated 1944). The high mintage of coins in 1944 and 1945 was necessary since virtually all previously issued coinage had disappeared during the Japanese occupation. Because of the high demand, dies were used well beyond their normal life and pieces struck from highly eroded dies are very common.

High mintage figures often imply common coins, but also provide the opportunity for some highly collectable varieties! With 137,208,000 minted by the US Mint in Denver, it's not surprising that there are a number of die varieties. Lyman Allen lists three in addition to the normal date:

Varieties
------------------------------------------------
9.05 - Normal date

9.05a - Repunched mint mark D/D (This Coin) Even within this variety, at least 4 sub-types exist with various orientations of the initial and secondary mint mark punches. Over the years, I have acquired examples of North-South (near), South-North (far), South-North (near), and Northwest-Southeast orientations.

9.05b - Doubled Die Obverse type 1. This variety is easily identified by the dramatic doubling of "UNITED", "STATES", all four digits of the date, and the bottom tip of the shield.

9.05c - Doubled Die Obverse type 2. This doubled die variety is not nearly as dramatic as 9.05b, but can still be identified with minimal magnification. There is a very slight doubling of "45" in the date, doubling of all of the letters in "UNITED", doubling of the letters "STAT" in STATES, and slight doubling of the letters "MER" in AMERICA.

In addition to the three varieties that have been cataloged, there is at least one other significant obverse doubled die variety in which all of the "P"s in the scroll text of "COMMONWEALTH OF THE PHILIPPINES" are very noticeably doubled.

This Coin
------------------------------------------------
This particular 9.05c exhibits a typical soft strike although the dies were not heavily eroded due to extended use that is typical of the 1945 D issue. As of this revision, this is the finest and only specimen to have been graded by either NGC or PCGS.

Date acquired: 2/21/2007 (raw coin)
Date graded: 12/20/2012 (self submitted to NGC)

Rev. 11/29/2015
View Coin ALLEN-10.06a 1905-S/S RP1 UNITED STATES 20C 1905 S USA-PHIL S/S RP1 ALLEN-10.06a PCGS XF 40 Lyman Allen #10.06 (KM #166) - Mintage: 420,000
Surviving: not more than 65,000, but probably closer to 25,000

This coin is one of the most difficult coins in the entire US/Philippine series to obtain in uncirculated condition. The Centavo, 10 Centavos, and 20 Centavos coins were popular with the people and tended to circulate well, but that's far from the only reason these coins are rare.

The entire mintage of 1905-S 20 Centavos was struck from silver bullion obtained by melting old Spanish-Filipino coinage which had been returned to the treasury. These coins were minted early in 1905, as follows:

January...300,000
March......120,000
------------------------
Total........ 420,000

The Bureau of Insular Affairs report for 1906 also reports that 8,722 20 Centavos coins were shipped to Manila from the San Francisco mint on January 5, 1906. It is possible that these coins were dated 1905 since this shipment also included 135,635 One Peso coins that were definitely dated 1905. It is also quite possible, and maybe even likely, that these coins were struck in, and dated 1906. January 5, 1906 was a Friday, so these coins could have been struck during the first 5 days of the new year. The U.S. Mint operates on a fiscal year which runs from July 1st through June 30th of the reporting calendar year. According to the U.S. Mint annual report for fiscal year 1906, the Philadelphia mint had created twelve 20 centavos dies between July 1, 1905 and June 30, 1906 and issued them to the San Francisco mint. It is very unlikely that these dies were dated 1905 since all of the 1905-S 20 Centavos coins were struck in fiscal year 1905 so there would have been no demand for additional 1905 dated dies in fiscal 1906. These 8,722 20 centavos coins are not reported having been struck by the U.S. mint in either 1905 or 1906, so we may never know what date was on them. The only thing we can be certain of is that they were returned to the San Francisco mint for recoining into the reduced size and weight silver coinage which began in 1907.

In November of 1905, the price of silver rose above the point at which the silver bullion value of the coin exceeded it's face value. The price of silver peaked in November 1906 when the bullion value of this coin exceeded 22 Centavos. Beginning in 1907, the size and weight of the 20 Centavos coin was reduced. The early 20 Centavos coins were removed from circulation by the banks as quickly as they came in and returned to the treasury for recoining. Over the next 34 years, 84.34% of all of the 20 Centavos coins struck for circulation from 1903 through 1906 were recoined by the government. The early silver coins were also melted or exported by the general population, but the number lost in this way is probably very small compared to the recoinage. Based on the government figures alone, at most 15.66% of the early 20 Centavos could have survived. In the case of the 1905-S, this translates to a survival of between 65,000 and 66,000. However, based on the Philippine Treasury circulation data, the extant population of the 1905-S is probably much lower.

The price of silver had been on an upward trend from the very first day coins were struck in March of 1903. There had been rises and falls, but it was clear in early 1905 that the par value of the silver Philippine coinage would soon be reached, so the Treasury began withdrawing them from circulation. By June 30, 1905 there were 1,052,101 20 centavos coins held in the treasury. It is very likely that this included the majority of the 1905-S 20 centavos coins. The last coins received by the treasury were probably among the first to be shipped back to the San Francisco mint for recoinage, so applying the general survival rate to this issue would be very optimistic. The 1903-S 20 centavos should be much more rare than the 1905-S based on mintage figures alone, but the number certified by the grading services for each date are very close. One can conclude then that the number of each date surviving to this day should also be very close. The surviving population for the 1905-S is more likely to be less than 6% of the original mintage, or roughly 25,000 coins.

Typically, the third, fourth, and fifth years of a coinage series tend to be the most difficult to obtain in uncirculated condition. The novelty has worn off and the general public uses them for commerce. This is probably THE most difficult coin of the 20 Centavos collection, and when you combine that with the variety characteristics, theses coins are rare in all but the heavily circulated grades. The coin is certainly not the best looking I've seen, but it was nice to get one that had already been certified.

Varieties
------------------------------------------------
10.06a - S/S Repunched Mint Mark (RPM) and Repunched "1" in the date. The repunched S is not as dramatic as some other dates, but the repunched "1" is very obvious. (this coin)

Date acquired: 9/18/2021 (Already graded by PCGS)

Rev 9/19/2021
View Coin ALLEN-11.12a 1916-S Tilted 6 UNITED STATES 20C 1916 S USA-PHIL TILTED 6 ALLEN-11.12a NGC MS 62 Lyman Allen #11.12a (KM #170) Tilted 6 in Date - Mintage: 1,435,000 (both varieties)

These coins were released into circulation as soon as they arrived in Manila, so very few (if any) languished in the treasury. This is only the second (non-details) 1916 "tilted 6" to be certified by NGC. It's a nice example of this relatively common variety in an uncommon mint state grade. It is also the finest of the two.

As of this revision, the population data for this coin is (1/0) for the variety and (3/3) for all NGC graded 1916-S 20 centavos. I feel very lucky to have acquired this exceptionally rare coin in mint state.

Varieties
------------------------------------------------
11.12 - Normal date (a line drawn through the center line of the "6" goes through the center of the coin)
11.12a - Tilted "6" in the date. (a line drawn through the center line of the "6" veers to the left of center of the coin)

Date acquired: 4/29/2018 (raw coin)
Date graded: 9/28/2018 (self submitted to NGC)

Rev. 10/5/2018
View Coin ALLEN-11.12a 1916-S Tilted 6 UNITED STATES 20C 1916 S USA-PHIL TILTED 6 ALLEN-11.12a NGC AU Details Lyman Allen #11.12a (KM #170) Tilted 6 in Date - Mintage: 1,435,000 (both varieties)

This is the FIRST 1916 "tilted 6" to be certified by NGC. Too bad it received a details grade. This coin is not particularly pretty, but it is a nice example of this relatively common variety.

Varieties
------------------------------------------------
11.12 - Normal date (a line drawn through the center line of the "6" goes through the center of the coin)
11.12a - Tilted "6" in the date. (a line drawn through the center line of the "6" veers to the left of center of the coin)

Date acquired: 8/3/2005 (raw coin)
Date graded: 1/3/2014 (self submitted to NGC)

Rev. 1/1/2015
View Coin ALLEN-12.04a 1944-D/S UNITED STATES 20C 1944 D/S USA-PHIL ALLEN-12.04a NGC MS 65 Lyman Allen #12.04a (KM #182) ) - Mintage: 28,596,000 (Variety Mintage unknown)

General
------------------------------------------------
The Denver mint produced nearly 10 times as many 20 Centavo coins in 1944 as the Manila Mint commonly had in it's most prolific years. As substantial as that mintage is, it's nothing compared to what was to come in 1945. The high mintage of coins in 1944 and 1945 was necessary since virtually all previously issued coinage had disappeared during the Japanese occupation. Because of the high demand, dies were used well beyond their normal life and pieces struck from highly eroded dies are very common.

High mintage figures often imply common coins, but also provide the opportunity for several collectable varieties! With 28,596,000 minted by the US Mint in Denver, it's not surprising that there are a number of die varieties. Lyman Allen lists two in addition to the normal date:

Varieties
------------------------------------------------
12.04 - Normal date (This coin)

12.04a - Repunched mint mark D/S. The underlying "S" is very difficult to make out and generally just appears as a spike on the inside, emanating from the curved portion of the "D."

12.04b - Repunched mint mark D/D. The doubling is much more noticeable that the D/S variety, but seems to be much rarer.

This Coin
------------------------------------------------
This particular coin is the 12.04a, D/S variety. It is a well preserved specimen and relatively few have been graded higher by NGC. The strike is typical for this issue, and the banner is incomplete. No die erosion is noticeable around the peripheral lettering on either side of the coin, so it must have been struck from relatively fresh dies.

Date acquired: 12/25/2012 (already graded by NGC)

Rev. 12/1/2015
View Coin ALLEN-12.04b 1944-D/D UNITED STATES 20C 1944 D/D USA-PHIL ALLEN-12.04b NGC MS 62 Lyman Allen #12.04b (KM #182) - Mintage: 28,596,000 (Variety Mintage unknown)

General
------------------------------------------------
The Denver mint produced nearly 10 times as many 20 Centavo coins in 1944 as the Manila Mint commonly had in it's most prolific years. As substantial as that mintage is, it's nothing compared to what was to come in 1945. The high mintage of coins in 1944 and 1945 was necessary since virtually all previously issued coinage had disappeared during the Japanese occupation. Because of the high demand, dies were used well beyond their normal life and pieces struck from highly eroded dies are very common.

High mintage figures often imply common coins, but also provide the opportunity for several collectable varieties! With 28,596,000 minted by the US Mint in Denver, it's not surprising that there are a number of die varieties. Lyman Allen lists two in addition to the normal date:

Varieties
------------------------------------------------
12.04 - Normal date (This coin)

12.04a - Repunched mint mark D/S. The underlying "S" is very difficult to make out and generally just appears as a spike on the inside, emanating from the curved portion of the "D."

12.04b - Repunched mint mark D/D. The doubling is much more noticeable that the D/S variety, but seems to be much rarer.

This Coin
------------------------------------------------
This particular coin is the 12.04b, D/D variety. It is one of five graded by NGC with only two graded higher. The strike is typical for this issue, and the banner is incomplete. Very little die erosion is noticeable around the peripheral lettering on the reverse of this coin, so it must have been struck from relatively fresh dies.

Date acquired: 1/22/2013 (already graded by NGC)

Rev. 12/1/2015
View Coin ALLEN-14.06a 1917-S Split 7 UNITED STATES 50C 1917 S USA-PHIL Split 7 (Type I) ALLEN-14.06a NGC XF 45 Lyman Allen #14.06a (Type 1) - (KM #171) - Mintage: 674,369

Until 1917, the San Francisco mint had been able to keep up with the demand for new Philippine coinage. With World War I intensifying, domestic demand for U.S. silver coinage rose and U.S. Mint resources became strained. The Philadelphia mint was producing more foreign coins than usual for Central and South American countries in order to fill the void left by the incapacitated European mints, and the San Francisco Mint was having to produce more domestic coinage to satisfy the increased war time demand. The Numismatist magazine reported in September 1917 that: Minting silver coins is proceeding in every mint in the country at from five to eight times the volume of past years … Forces at several of the mints probably will be augmented soon and may go on longer hours to meet the demand. In the Philippines, the increased world demand for raw materials such as hemp for rope, coconut oil, tobacco, and sugar all caused an unprecedented economic boom which increased the demand for circulating coinage in 1917. Silver prices began rising in 1916 and it seemed very likely that they would cause the bullion value of the reduced size and weight silver coinage to exceed it's face value. This happened briefly in September 1917 when the bullion value of the 50 centavos coin rose to 53 centavos. This caused hoarding by the public and possibly exportation and melting of all denominations of silver coinage. The coin shortage became so severe that the Philippine National Bank even printed fractional currency notes in denominations of 10, 20, and 50 centavos in the fall of 1917. I was fortunate enough to obtain a full set of these notes in 2017, and the 50 centavos note, dated September 22, 1917 is shown below:

FrontBack

Silver prices receded slightly for the next seven months, but again rose past the par value of the silver coinage in April 1918 and remained above par value until June 1920. Silver prices peaked in January 1920 at which time the 50 centavos coin had a bullion value of 64 centavos. Laws were enacted by the Philippine legislature to keep the coinage in the county. Enforcement was actually very effective and relatively few of the silver coins of the period were exported or melted locally. Hoarding was however a significant contributing factor to the disappearance of circulating silver coinage.

Another little known fact is that from 1917 through 1941, virtually ALL silver coinage struck at the mints in San Francisco and Manila was recoineed from reduced size and weight silver pesos that had been struck between 1907 and 1912. Roughly 1.7 million of these silver pesos where melted and recoined by the San Francisco mint in 1917 alone.

Many sources state that the reason the Mint of the Philippine Islands (aka Manila Mint) was built was because World War I made it difficult to ship new coinage from San Francisco to the Philippine Islands. While this may be true, it was not the primary motivation for creating a mint on Philippine soil. Strained resources at the U.S. mints, rising silver prices and an economic boom during World War I were the real drivers. It is ironic that the very month the new mint opened in 1920, the economic boom had ended, the Philippines was experiencing a serious financial crisis, and the price of silver had fallen below the par value of the coinage.

Varieties
ALLEN-14.06 - Normal date.
ALLEN-14.06a - So-called Broken 7 in the date. The upper right corner of the 7 in the date appears to be split or broken, caused by repunching the date digit into the die with a slight shift or a a slightly different date punch or a damaged date punch. There are actually 3 sub-types of this variety:
---- ALLEN-14.06a Type 1 - The upper right corner point of the "7" in the date appears to be split. (this coin)
---- ALLEN-14.06a Type 2 - The inside of the upper right corner of the "7" has a pointed protrusion.
---- ALLEN-14.06a Type 3 - Combination of Type 1 and Type 2..

This Coin
This date is much more difficult to obtain than one might expect. High grade specimens have become quite expensive and I simply grew tired of waiting for one to come up for auction. When I found this one, I decided to take advantage of the opportunity. This particular coin is nice for the grade. The strike was relative good and the wear is even with relatively few detracting marks. It is also the "Broken 7" variety A-16.06a Type 1, but is not identified as such on the label.

References
  • Nagano, Y. (2015). State and Finance in the Philippines 1898-1941 (First ed.). Singapore: NUS Press (National University of Singapore).
  • Perez, G. S. (1921). The Mint of the Philippine Islands - Numismatic Notes and Monographs No. 8. New York: American Numismatic Society.
  • Phillips, F. H. (1976, March). Philippine Coins, The Forgotten U.S. Coinage. (N. N. Harris, Ed.) The Numismatist, 89(3), pp. 525-528.
Date acquired: 1/13//2018 (Already graded by NGC)

Rev. 1/13/2018
View Coin ALLEN-15.01b 1944-S Type I Obverse UNITED STATES 50C 1944 S USA-PHIL OBVERSE OF 1907-1921 ALLEN-15.01b NGC MS 65 Lyman Allen #15.01b (KM #183) - OBVERSE OF 1907-1921 - Mintage: 19,187,000 (Variety Mintage Unknown)

The Manila Mint sustained heavy damage on December 7, 1941 from Japanese aerial bombardment and additional damage in 1945 during the Battle of Manila which liberated the city. During the Japanese occupation, much of the coinage was seized and melted. In preparation for the liberation of the islands, the Treasury department ordered the Mint to strike all denominations from the one centavo through 50 centavos. While all three active US mints were utilized for the task, the 50 centavo coins were only struck in San Francisco. The 1944S and 1945S 50 Centavo coins are the only Commonwealth reverse 50 Centavos produced with the exception of 20,000 commemorative 50 Centavos produced by the Manila mint in 1936 .

These coins are not at all rare in grades up through MS65, but are quite rare at MS66 and above. As of this revision, a total of 124 have been graded by NGC. 17 have been awarded MS66 with only 3 higher at MS67. PCGS has graded a total of 112 with 12 as MS66 and 3 as MS67. This is quite different than the 1945S where a total of 152 have been graded by NGC with MS66 as the most common grade with a population of 49. The MS67 population is 25, which means it is much easier to obtain an NGC MS67 1945S than it is to obtain an MS66 1944S!

A common side effect of high mintage is often a significant number of identifiable varieties and the 1944S 50 Centavos is no exception. There are only two documented ALLEN varieties for this date which are detailed below. There are however quite a few more that are undocumented.

Varieties
------------
ALLEN-15.01 - Normal date and mint mark.
ALLEN-15.01a - S/S doubled mint mark.
ALLEN-15.01b - Type-I obverse (style of 1907-1921)

A few years ago, I acquired several 1944S US/Philippines 50 Centavo pieces that have a slightly different obverse (figure side) than normal. I wish I could claim to have discovered this difference myself, but they were actually listed on eBay by a dealer in the Philippines as having the "Reverse of 1921" (actually the figure side). This obverse is most easily identified by the shape and lines of the Mt. Mayon volcano. The earlier volcano has very prominent lines spreading down the slope from the summit to the base and is flat or slightly concave. The later volcano lacks definition, has no lines, and is a bit convex in shape. The latter is the most common variety. The early style obverse appears only on coins dated 1944 and has never been seen on those dated 1945.

This coin is a two year type since 1944 is the first year that the common (i.e. non-commemorative) obverse was paired with the Commonwealth reverse. As is common with many first year issue coins, there were issues that caused the designs on both sides of the coin to be poorly struck. I suspect that during the first week or so of production at the San Francisco mint, these problems became apparent and a request was made to the engravers in Philadelphia to modify the design so that it would be more fully struck.

As of September 30, 2015, NGC now officially recognizes this variety as part of the VarietyPlus program and this particular coin is the first one (and until March 3, 2016, the only one) to be so designated. The high resolution images appearing on the VarietyPlus page are of my coin.

In addition to actual die varieties, there are an amazing number of varieties stemming from damaged dies. The dies used to produce these coins were utilized long past their normal service life. Signs of die erosion and broken dies are quite common. Die breaks occur in and above the letters in the word FILIPINAS, and above the 9 in the date. The letter "S" in FILIPINAS can be filled in the upper or lower portion, and it is not uncommon to see both filled in.

This Coin
------------------------------------------------
This coin is the "OBVERSE OF 1907-1921" variety with none of the common die breaks found in the word FILIPINAS, and no bar over the 9 in the date. It is reasonably well struck for this variety and reasonably well preserved. There is some minor discoloration, but the fields are reasonably clean with only minor contact marks on the devices. Although this variety has been recognized by collectors for quite some time, this is the first one to be attributed on the label by either PCGS or NGC. You will find no other with this style (aka vintage) of NGC label.

Date acquired: 11/13/2011 (raw coin)
Date graded: 9/12/2014 (self submitted to NGC, variety not recognized despite an indication that it would be)
Date attributed: 9/30/2015 (resubmitted to NGC for variety attribution)

References:
- Shafer, N. "United States Territorial Coinage for the Philippine Islands." Racine, Wisconsin: Whitman Publishing Company, 1961.

Rev. 10/15/2020
View Coin ALLEN-15.01b 1944-S Type I Obverse UNITED STATES 50C 1944 S USA-PHIL OBVERSE OF 1907-1921 ALLEN-15.01b NGC MS 65 Lyman Allen #15.01b (KM #183) - OBVERSE OF 1907-1921 - Mintage: 19,187,000 (Variety Mintage Unknown)

The Manila Mint sustained heavy damage on December 7, 1941 from Japanese aerial bombardment and additional damage in 1945 during the Battle of Manila which liberated the city. During the Japanese occupation, much of the coinage was seized and melted. In preparation for the liberation of the islands, the Treasury department ordered the Mint to strike all denominations from the one centavo through 50 centavos. While all three active US mints were utilized for the task, the 50 centavo coins were only struck in San Francisco. The 1944S and 1945S 50 Centavo coins are the only Commonwealth reverse 50 Centavos produced with the exception of 20,000 commemorative 50 Centavos produced by the Manila mint in 1936 .

These coins are not at all rare in grades up through MS65, but are quite rare at MS66 and above. As of this revision, a total of 124 have been graded by NGC. 17 have been awarded MS66 with only 3 higher at MS67. PCGS has graded a total of 112 with 12 as MS66 and 3 as MS67. This is quite different than the 1945S where a total of 152 have been graded by NGC with MS66 as the most common grade with a population of 49. The MS67 population is 25, which means it is much easier to obtain an NGC MS67 1945S than it is to obtain an MS66 1944S!

A common side effect of high mintage is often a significant number of identifiable varieties and the 1944S 50 Centavos is no exception. There are only two documented ALLEN varieties for this date which are detailed below. There are however quite a few more that are undocumented.

Varieties
------------
ALLEN-15.01 - Normal date and mint mark.
ALLEN-15.01a - S/S doubled mint mark.
ALLEN-15.01b - Type-I obverse (style of 1907-1921)

A few years ago, I acquired several 1944S US/Philippines 50 Centavo pieces that have a slightly different obverse (figure side) than normal. I wish I could claim to have discovered this difference myself, but they were actually listed on eBay by a dealer in the Philippines as having the "Reverse of 1921" (actually the figure side). This obverse is most easily identified by the shape and lines of the Mt. Mayon volcano. The earlier volcano has very prominent lines spreading down the slope from the summit to the base and is flat or slightly concave. The later volcano lacks definition, has no lines, and is a bit convex in shape. The latter is the most common variety. The early style obverse appears only on coins dated 1944 and has never been seen on those dated 1945.

This coin is a two year type since 1944 is the first year that the common (i.e. non-commemorative) obverse was paired with the Commonwealth reverse. As is common with many first year issue coins, there were issues that caused the designs on both sides of the coin to be poorly struck. I suspect that during the first week or so of production at the San Francisco mint, these problems became apparent and a request was made to the engravers in Philadelphia to modify the design so that it would be more fully struck.

As of September 30, 2015, NGC officially recognized this variety as part of the VarietyPlus program. The high resolution images appearing on the VarietyPlus page are of my original submission coin.

In addition to actual die varieties, there are an amazing number of varieties stemming from damaged dies. The dies used to produce these coins were utilized long past their normal service life. Signs of die erosion and broken dies are quite common. Die breaks occur in and above the letters in the word FILIPINAS, and above the 9 in the date. The letter "S" in FILIPINAS can be filled in the upper or lower portion, and it is not uncommon to see both filled in.

This Coin
------------------------------------------------
This coin is the "OBVERSE OF 1907-1921" variety with a minor die break in the upper loop of the "S" in the word FILIPINAS, and no bar over the 9 in the date. It is reasonably well struck for this variety and reasonably well preserved. There is some minor discoloration, but the fields are reasonably clean with only minor contact marks on the devices.

Date acquired: 5/12/2015 (raw coin)
Date graded: 3/3/2016 (self submitted to NGC for grading and variety attribution)

References:
- Shafer, N. "United States Territorial Coinage for the Philippine Islands." Racine, Wisconsin: Whitman Publishing Company, 1961.

Rev. 3/7/2016
View Coin ALLEN-15.01b 1944-S Type I Obverse UNITED STATES 50C 1944 S USA-PHIL OBVERSE OF 1907-1921 ALLEN-15.01b NGC MS 65 Lyman Allen #15.01b (KM #183) - OBVERSE OF 1907-1921 - Mintage: 19,187,000 (Variety Mintage Unknown)

The Manila Mint sustained heavy damage on December 7, 1941 from Japanese aerial bombardment and additional damage in 1945 during the Battle of Manila which liberated the city. During the Japanese occupation, much of the coinage was seized and melted. In preparation for the liberation of the islands, the Treasury department ordered the Mint to strike all denominations from the one centavo through 50 centavos. While all three active US mints were utilized for the task, the 50 centavo coins were only struck in San Francisco. The 1944S and 1945S 50 Centavo coins are the only Commonwealth reverse 50 Centavos produced with the exception of 20,000 commemorative 50 Centavos produced by the Manila mint in 1936 .

These coins are not at all rare in grades up through MS65, but are quite rare at MS66 and above. As of this revision, a total of 124 have been graded by NGC. 17 have been awarded MS66 with only 3 higher at MS67. PCGS has graded a total of 112 with 12 as MS66 and 3 as MS67. This is quite different than the 1945S where a total of 152 have been graded by NGC with MS66 as the most common grade with a population of 49. The MS67 population is 25, which means it is much easier to obtain an NGC MS67 1945S than it is to obtain an MS66 1944S!

A common side effect of high mintage is often a significant number of identifiable varieties and the 1944S 50 Centavos is no exception. There are only two documented ALLEN varieties for this date which are detailed below. There are however quite a few more that are undocumented.

Varieties
------------
ALLEN-15.01 - Normal date and mint mark.
ALLEN-15.01a - S/S doubled mint mark
ALLEN-15.01b - Type I obverse (style of 1907-1921).

A few years ago, I acquired several 1944S US/Philippines 50 Centavo pieces that have a slightly different obverse (figure side) than normal. I wish I could claim to have discovered this difference myself, but they were actually listed on eBay by a dealer in the Philippines as having the "Reverse of 1921" (actually the figure side). This obverse is most easily identified by the shape and lines of the Mt. Mayon volcano. The earlier volcano has very prominent lines spreading down the slope from the summit to the base and is flat or slightly concave. The later volcano lacks definition, has no lines, and is a bit convex in shape. The latter is the most common variety. The early style obverse appears only on coins dated 1944 and has never been seen on those dated 1945.

This coin is a two year type since 1944 is the first year that the common (i.e. non-commemorative) obverse was paired with the Commonwealth reverse. As is common with many first year issue coins, there were issues that caused the designs on both sides of the coin to be poorly struck. I suspect that during the first week or so of production at the San Francisco mint, these problems became apparent and a request was made to the engravers in Philadelphia to modify the design so that it would be more fully struck.

As of September 30, 2015, NGC now officially recognizes this variety as part of the VarietyPlus program and this particular coin is the first one (and until March 3, 2016, the only one) to be so designated. The high resolution images appearing on the VarietyPlus page are of my coin.

In addition to actual die varieties, there are an amazing number of varieties stemming from damaged dies. The dies used to produce these coins were utilized long past their normal service life. Signs of die erosion and broken dies are quite common. Die breaks occur in and above the letters in the word FILIPINAS, and above the 9 in the date. The letter "S" in FILIPINAS can be filled in the upper or lower portion, and it is not uncommon to see both filled in.

This Coin
------------------------------------------------
This coin is the "OBVERSE OF 1907-1921" variety with one of the common die breaks found in the word FILIPINAS, but no bar over the 9 in the date. The upper loop of the "S" in FILIPINAS is partially filled. It is reasonably well struck for this variety and reasonably well preserved. There is some minor discoloration, but the fields are reasonably clean with only minor contact marks on the devices.

Date acquired: 1/18/2018 (already graded by NGC, but no attribution)
Date attributed: TBD (resubmitted to NGC for variety attribution)

References:
- Shafer, N. "United States Territorial Coinage for the Philippine Islands." Racine, Wisconsin: Whitman Publishing Company, 1961.

Rev. 1/18/2018
View Coin ALLEN-15.01b 1944-S Type I Obverse UNITED STATES 50C 1944 S USA-PHIL OBVERSE OF 1907-1921 ALLEN-15.01b NGC MS 64 Lyman Allen #15.01b (KM #183) - OBVERSE OF 1907-1921 - Mintage: 19,187,000 (Variety Mintage Unknown)

The Manila Mint sustained heavy damage on December 7, 1941 from Japanese aerial bombardment and additional damage in 1945 during the Battle of Manila which liberated the city. During the Japanese occupation, much of the coinage was seized and melted. In preparation for the liberation of the islands, the Treasury department ordered the Mint to strike all denominations from the one centavo through 50 centavos. While all three active US mints were utilized for the task, the 50 centavo coins were only struck in San Francisco. The 1944S and 1945S 50 Centavo coins are the only Commonwealth reverse 50 Centavos produced with the exception of 20,000 commemorative 50 Centavos produced by the Manila mint in 1936 .

These coins are not at all rare in grades up through MS65, but are quite rare at MS66 and above. As of this revision, a total of 124 have been graded by NGC. 17 have been awarded MS66 with only 3 higher at MS67. PCGS has graded a total of 112 with 12 as MS66 and 3 as MS67. This is quite different than the 1945S where a total of 152 have been graded by NGC with MS66 as the most common grade with a population of 49. The MS67 population is 25, which means it is much easier to obtain an NGC MS67 1945S than it is to obtain an MS66 1944S!

A common side effect of high mintage is often a significant number of identifiable varieties and the 1944S 50 Centavos is no exception. There are only two documented ALLEN varieties for this date which are detailed below. There are however quite a few more that are undocumented.

Varieties
------------
ALLEN-15.01 - Normal date and mint mark.
ALLEN-15.01a - S/S doubled mint mark.
ALLEN-15.01b - Type-I obverse (style of 1907-1921)

A few years ago, I acquired several 1944S US/Philippines 50 Centavo pieces that have a slightly different obverse (figure side) than normal. I wish I could claim to have discovered this difference myself, but they were actually listed on eBay by a dealer in the Philippines as having the "Reverse of 1921" (actually the figure side). This obverse is most easily identified by the shape and lines of the Mt. Mayon volcano. The earlier volcano has very prominent lines spreading down the slope from the summit to the base and is flat or slightly concave. The later volcano lacks definition, has no lines, and is a bit convex in shape. The latter is the most common variety. The early style obverse appears only on coins dated 1944 and has never been seen on those dated 1945.

This coin is a two year type since 1944 is the first year that the common (i.e. non-commemorative) obverse was paired with the Commonwealth reverse. As is common with many first year issue coins, there were issues that caused the designs on both sides of the coin to be poorly struck. I suspect that during the first week or so of production at the San Francisco mint, these problems became apparent and a request was made to the engravers in Philadelphia to modify the design so that it would be more fully struck.

As of September 30, 2015, NGC officially recognized this variety as part of the VarietyPlus program. The high resolution images appearing on the VarietyPlus page are of my original submission coin.

In addition to actual die varieties, there are an amazing number of varieties stemming from damaged dies. The dies used to produce these coins were utilized long past their normal service life. Signs of die erosion and broken dies are quite common. Die breaks occur in and above the letters in the word FILIPINAS, and above the 9 in the date. The letter "S" in FILIPINAS can be filled in the upper or lower portion, and it is not uncommon to see both filled in.

This Coin
------------------------------------------------
This coin is the "OBVERSE OF 1907-1921" variety with a major die breaks in both the upper and lower loops of the "S" in the word FILIPINAS, and no bar over the 9 in the date. It is softly struck even for this for this variety but is reasonably well preserved. There is some toning on the obverse, but it does not distract from the overall eye appeal. The fields are reasonably clean with only minor contact marks on the devices, but there were a few too many for it to achieve an MS65 grade..

Date acquired: 12/16/2015 (raw coin)
Date graded: 3/3/2016 (self submitted to NGC for grading and variety attribution)

References:
- Shafer, N. "United States Territorial Coinage for the Philippine Islands." Racine, Wisconsin: Whitman Publishing Company, 1961.

Rev. 3/7/2016
View Coin ALLEN-15.02a 1945-S/S UNITED STATES 50C 1945 S/S USA-PHIL ALLEN-15.02a PCGS MS 65 Lyman Allen #15.02a (KM #183) - 1945-S/S - Total Mintage: 18,120,000 (Variety mintage unknown)

This coin is a nice example of the most commonly encountered S over S repunched mintmark. The original "S" was punched southwest of the second predominant "S", but the lower loop remains clearly visible.

The dies used to strike this coin were relatively fresh and none of the common die break varieties are present. The lettering on the banner under the shield is incomplete at the center and the sea lion is just slightly better than an outline. The peripheral lettering and the date however are quite sharp.

Varieties
------------------------------------------------
15.02 - Normal date
15.02a - Repunched mint mark S/S (this coin) Even within this variety, several sub-types exist with various orientations of the initial and secondary mint mark punches.

Dies used to strike these coins were run well past their normal service lives and a vast array of die break varieties exist. Most commonly seen are the breaks above the letters in FILIPINAS on the obverse, but there are also several reverse varieties. There is often a break just above the 9 in the date, and multiple variations exist. Not only are individual die brakes common, coins containing various combinations of these die breaks also exist.

Date acquired: 9/11/2019 (already graded by PCGS)

Rev. 9/15/2019.
View Coin ALLEN-16.03a 1904 RPD (4) UNITED STATES PESO 1904 USA-PHIL Doubled "4" ALLEN-16.03a NGC PF 58 Lyman Allen #16.03a - 1904/4 (KM #168) - Total mintage: 1355 (Variety mintage unknown)

Proof mintage for this year was limited to 1,355 sets. The seven coin Philippine proof sets were produced at the Philadelphia mint from 1903 through 1908 (excluding 1907), and were sold to the general public for $2.00 per set. At the time these sets were produced, there was no protective packaging. Each coin was individually wrapped in tissue paper and placed in a plain paper coin envelope. As a result, many proof coins exhibit micro thin hairline scratches as well as heavy toning. When combined with very low mintages, and low initial sales to the public, it's easy to see why fully gem proof coins are very rare.

Proof sets in 1904 were struck on order. In addition to the 1,355 regular proof sets, another 10,000 uncirculated sets were ordered by the well known numismatist Farran Zerbe to be sold at the Philippine Exhibit at the Louisiana Purchase Exposition in St. Louis in1904. Supply far exceeded demand for these uncirculated sets, and only 3,254 were sold at the exposition. The remaining 6,746 sets were shipped to the Philippines where another 500 were sold by the Treasury. The 6,246 unsold sets were ultimately released into general circulation.

Although it was not originally attributed as such on the holder, it can easily be seen that this is the repunched date variety. The substantial doubling of the "4" can easily be seen in the close-up scan. The 16.03a is the only proof coin variety listed by Lyman Allen in his book ";U.S./ Philippine Coins - 6th Edition 2008 - 2009."

This coin was actually purchased raw as a 1904 "Prooflike" Peso, so I was greatly pleased to discover that it was not only a proof, but the variety as well! The entire surface of the coin is mirror-like with no toning or spots whatsoever. Despite the handling marks which kept it from grading above PF58, it has great eye appeal and a "WOW" factor that is difficult to capture in a photograph and impossible with a scanner. The reflections in the reverse (from left to right) are the light bulb, the lamp shade, and the camera lens.

Date acquired: 6/6/2005 (raw coin)
Date graded: 12/15/2007 (self submitted to NGC)
Date attributed: 9/28/2016 (resubmitted to NGC for attribution)

References:
- Allen, L. "U.S./Philippine Coins" 6th Edition 2008-2009 published by Lyman Allen Rare Coins Virginia City, NV 2007
- Shafer, N. "United States Territorial Coinage for the Philippine Islands." Racine, Wisconsin: Whitman Publishing Company, 1961.

Rev. 10/11/2017
View Coin ALLEN-17.04a 1909-S/S UNITED STATES PESO 1909 S/S USA-PHIL ALLEN-17.04a NGC UNC Details Lyman Allen #17.04a - 1909-S/S - (KM #172) - Mintage: 7,578,000 (variety mintage unknown)

S/S variety. This coin was obviously dumped in the ocean so that it would not be taken by the invading Japanese army. Then when it was recovered, it was harshly cleaned with a wire brush.

Date acquired: 2/25/2007 (Raw coin)
Date graded: 9/24/2019 (self submitted to NGC)

Rev.: 10/13/2019
View Coin ALLEN-17.04b 1909-S/S/S UNITED STATES PESO 1909 S/S/S USA-PHIL ALLEN-17.04b NGC AU Details Lyman Allen #17.04b - 1909-S/S/S - (KM #172) - Mintage: 7,578,000 (variety mintage unknown)

S/S/S variety. This coin was obviously dumped in the ocean so that it would not be taken by the invading Japanese army. Then when it was recovered, it shows corrosion and was harshly cleaned.

Date acquired: 2/25/2007 (Raw coin)
Date graded: 9/24/2019 (self submitted to NGC)

Rev.: 11/13/2019
View Coin ALLEN-R-1a 1947-S DDO PHILIPPINES 50C 1947S DOUGLAS MACARTHUR KM-184, ALLEN-R-1a NGC MS 67 Philippines - 1947S MacArthur 50 Centavos - Allen #R-1a (KM #184) - Mintage: 200,000

The Douglas MacArthur 50 Centavos and One Peso coins were the first coinage of the new "Republic of the Philippines." Both of these coins were designed by Laura Gardin Frasier and struck at the San Francisco Mint.

These coins were struck in very shallow relief and can be very difficult to obtain in high grades. This one was quite a find. As of this revision, a truly staggering number of these coins have been graded by NGC. Of the 1,938 graded, the vast majority are MS65 (1,611), 171 have been graded MS66, 7 at the lofty grade of MS67, and only one of those 7 was awarded a Star for exceptional eye appeal. PCGS has graded only 227 with just one at MS67.

This is THE finest 1947S MacArthur 50 Centavos graded by either NGC or PCGS and as of this revision, one of only three graded by NGC with a Star designation. On top of that, this coin appears to me to be the R-1a doubled die obverse variety. To the right and just below MacArthur's chin, the letters "DOU" in DOUGLAS and the letters "ARTHUR" are noticeably doubled with the second strike slightly down and to the right of the first. It is unfortunate that NGC does not notate the varieties for this coin on the label.

Varieties:
--------------------------
ALLEN-R-1 - Normal obverse and reverse.
ALLEN-R-1a - Doubled die obverse. (This coin) To the right and just below MacArthur's chin, the letters "DOU" in DOUGLAS and the letters "ARTHUR" are noticeably doubled. This variety is recognized by PCGS, but not by NGC.
ALLEN-R-1b - Doubled die reverse. The two right stars on the shield show doubling at the bottom and the 7 of the date is slightly doubled. This variety may be recognized by PCGS, but not by NGC.
ALLEN-R-1c - Doubled die obverse and reverse. This is a combination of R-1a and R-1b. This variety may be recognized by PCGS, but not by NGC.

Date acquired: 4/10/2014 (Already graded by NGC)

Rev. 1/1/2018
View Coin ALLEN-R-1a 1947-S DDO PHILIPPINES 50C 1947S DOUGLAS MACARTHUR KM-184, ALLEN-R-1a NGC MS 65 Philippines - 1947S MacArthur 50 Centavos - Allen #R-1a (KM #184) - Mintage: 200,000

The Douglas MacArthur 50 Centavos and One Peso coins were the first coinage of the new "Republic of the Philippines." Both of these coins were designed by Laura Gardin Frasier and struck at the San Francisco Mint.

These coins were struck in very shallow relief and can be very difficult to obtain in high grades. This one was quite a find. As of this revision, a truly staggering number of these coins have been graded by NGC. Of the 1,938 graded, the vast majority are MS65 (1,611), 171 have been graded MS66, 7 at the lofty grade of MS67, and only one of those 7 was awarded a Star for exceptional eye appeal. PCGS has graded only 227 with just one at MS67.

This is a beautiful MS65 with great eye appeal. On top of that, this coin appears to me to be the R-1a doubled die obverse variety. To the right and just below MacArthur's chin, the letters "DOU" in DOUGLAS and the letters "ARTHUR" are noticeably doubled with the second strike slightly down and to the right of the first. It is unfortunate that NGC does not notate the varieties for this coin on the label.

Varieties:
--------------------------
ALLEN-R-1 - Normal obverse and reverse.
ALLEN-R-1a - Doubled die obverse. (This coin) To the right and just below MacArthur's chin, the letters "DOU" in DOUGLAS and the letters "ARTHUR" are noticeably doubled. This variety is recognized by PCGS, but not by NGC.
ALLEN-R-1b - Doubled die reverse. The two right stars on the shield show doubling at the bottom and the 7 of the date is slightly doubled. This variety may be recognized by PCGS, but not by NGC.
ALLEN-R-1c - Doubled die obverse and reverse. This is a combination of R-1a and R-1b. This variety may be recognized by PCGS, but not by NGC.

Date acquired: 5/21/2014 (Already graded by NGC)

Rev. 1/1/2018
View Coin ALLEN-R-1c 1947-S DDO/DDR PHILIPPINES 50C 1947S DOUGLAS MACARTHUR KM-184, ALLEN-R1c NGC MS 65 Philippines - 1947S MacArthur 50 Centavos - Allen #R1c (KM #184) - Mintage: 200,000

The Douglas MacArthur 50 Centavos and One Peso coins were the first coinage of the new "Republic of the Philippines." Both of these coins were designed by Laura Gardin Frasier and struck at the San Francisco Mint.

These coins were struck in very shallow relief and can be very difficult to obtain in high grades. As of this revision, a truly staggering number of these coins have been graded by NGC. Of the 2,094 graded, the vast majority are MS65 (1,685), 200 have been graded MS66, 8 at the lofty grade of MS67, and only one of those 8 was awarded a Star for exceptional eye appeal.

This coin is in one of the old "fatty holders," so it was graded in the 1990's.

Varieties:
--------------------------
ALLEN-R-1 - Normal obverse and reverse.
ALLEN-R-1a - Doubled die obverse. To the right and just below MacArthur's chin, the letters "DOU" in DOUGLAS and the letters "ARTHUR" are noticeably doubled. This variety is recognized by PCGS, but not by NGC.
ALLEN-R-1b - Doubled die reverse. The two right stars on the shield show doubling at the bottom and the 7 of the date is slightly doubled. This variety may be recognized by PCGS, but not by NGC.
ALLEN-R-1c - Doubled die obverse and reverse. This is a combination of R-1a and R-1b. This variety may be recognized by PCGS, but not by NGC. (This coin)

Date acquired: 8/19/2021 (Already graded by NGC)

Rev. 8/22/2021
View Coin ALLEN-R-2a 1947-S/S PHILIPPINES PESO 1947S S/S DOUGLAS MACARTHUR KM-185 NGC MS 66 Philippines - 1947 S/S MacArthur One Peso - Allen #R-2a (KM #185) - Mintage: 100,000

The Douglas MacArthur 50 Centavos and One Peso coins were the first coinage of the new "Republic of the Philippines." Both of these coins were designed by Laura Gardin Frasier and struck at the San Francisco Mint, with the "S" mint mark appearing just below the date on the reverse.

This particular coin has a beautiful peripheral toning that the pictures do not properly represent. As of this writing, NGC has graded 626 pieces with only 37 receiving a grade of MS66 (one with a star) with none finer. Not only that, it is the S/S variety. This is a truly stunning coin and well worth the time, money, and effort spent to have it graded.

Date acquired: 9/3/2013 (raw coin)
Date graded: 2/4/2014 (self submitted to NGC)

Rev.: 8/13/2021

To follow or send a message to this user,
please log in