Commonwealth of the Philippines Complete





Coin Details

Origin/Country: United States
Item Description: COPPER-ZINC-NICKEL 5C 1944 USA-PHIL KM-180a
Full Grade: PCGS MS 65
Owner: JAA

Owner Comments:

Mint: Philadelphia
Mint Mark: None
Mintage: 21,198,000
Obverse Designer: Melicio Figueroa
Composition: Copper (65%) - Zinc (23%) - Nickel (12%)
Weight: 4.9200g
Diameter: 19mm
Edge: Plain

The 1944 and 1945 Five Centavos use the same obverse and reverse designs as the pre-war Five Centavos but have a different Wartime composition.

The pre-war Five Centavos had a composition of Copper (75%) and Nickel (25%). Both Copper and Nickel are important strategic materials during wartime. Copper is needed for the production of shell casings and Nickel is an essential ingredient in the manufacture of armor plating for ships, tanks, etc. In order to conserve Copper and Nickel the wartime alloy of the Five Centavos was changed to Copper (65%), Zinc (23%), and Nickel (12%).

During the 1942 through 1944 Japanese occupation of the Philippines nearly all coins disappeared from circulation. In the occupied areas the Japanese collected all of the coins melted them down and shipped them back to Japan. The few pre-war coins that escaped the melting pots were horded and hid away until after the war. Most daily commerce was conducted with low denomination paper currency (Emergency or Guerilla Currency) printed by Guerrilla military units, local municipalities, or Military and Civilian Currency Boards authorized by General MacArthur or the Commonwealth government-in-exile under President Quezon.

During the Japanese occupation there was a very active resistance movement in the Philippines and allied inteligence was very much aware, of the economic situation in the islands, and the need to bring new coins and currency with them when they liberated the Philippines.

In preparation for General MacArthur's return to the Philippines the Treasury Department ordered the Philadelphia, and San Francisco Mints to strike millions of Five Centavos coins. The Philadelphia Mint struck 21,198,000 Five Centavos dated 1944. There is no Mint Mark on the coins struck at Philadelphia. The San Francisco Mint Struck 14,040,000 Five Centavos dated 1944 and 72,796,000 dated 1945. Coins struck at San Francisco have a S Mint Mark.

When American forces liberated the Philippines in 1944 - 1945 they brought with them the Wartime Alloy Victory Coins produced in the continental United States.

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