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The Hyde Park Collection - Australian George V Sovereigns 1911-1931


Set Type: Gold Sovereign, George V, 1911-1931, Circulation Issue
Owner: Zebo
Last Modified: 5/4/2021
Views: 771

Rank: 1
Score: 67966
Leading by: 42474
Points to Higher Rank: N/A
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Set Description:

The Reign of King George V (1910-1936) - House of Windsor

This set consists of all the different gold sovereigns issued by Australia and its Sydney, Melbourne and Perth mints from 1911 through 1931. The Sovereign during that time was the chief coin of commerce in the world.

My goal is to put together a high grade complete date and mint collection of Australian Sovereigns. This collection was minted during King George V's reign. My love of the Sovereign began with my father's interest in the coin. My collection has grown significantly over the years and I will continue to upgrade the set when feasible. The history and personalities surrounding the Sovereign is fascinating. The importance of the Sovereign in world commerce is unprecedented. My appreciation for Sovereign rose to new heights after researching and later obtaining Sovereigns from the Quartermaster, Bentley, George and Park House collections.

George V Sovereigns minted
Melbourne Mint 1911-1931
Perth Mint 1911-1931
Sydney Mint 1911-1926

Key Date 1920 S

Other Key Dates: 1921 S, 1923 S, 1924 S, 1926 P, 1926 S,1929 M

King George V was the second son of Edward VII. Initially, due to the untimely death of his older brother, Albert, George was placed on the throne. He became King in 1910 and played an active role supporting the troops during World War I. Though lackluster in personality, he won the loyalty of the middle class and many in Great Britain with his steadfast dedication to his country.

George V immediately faced a constitutional crisis, known as the budget controversy of 1910. In an unprecedented move, Tories in the House of Lords rejected the budget proposed by Liberals in the House of Commons. George V threatened to create enough Liberal nobles in the House of Lords to pass the measure, and the Tories gave in. George V’s threat foretold future actions where he would support the middle class over the gentry.

The reign of George V saw many changes within the British Empire. Rebellion in Ireland in 1916 resulted in an independent Irish parliament and later a geographic division along religious lines. The post–World War I period also brought change to the empire itself as Canada, New Zealand, Australia and South Africa demanded and received the right of self-governance and formed the Commonwealth of Nations in 1931. India followed, achieving some degree of self-determinism in 1935.

King George V became a popular king that cultivated good relationships with the Labor Party and unions during the economic depression of the 1930s. While he lacked intellectual curiosity and sophistication, he was hardworking, deeply devoted to Great Britain and widely admired by the British people.

Australian Mints:

The Sydney Branch Mint

Millions of pounds of gold bullion were shipped from Australia to London each year to be minted into coin. However, it soon became apparent that it would be easier to refine the gold and turn it into coins at source, rather than transport it to Britain and have it turned into coins there. Sydney, Melbourne, and Adelaide each submitted to be the venue of a branch of the Royal Mint and after some deliberation the British government awarded it to Sydney, which began issuing coins in 1855. This Mint issued coins with its own design from 1855 until 1870. In 1871, the Royal Mint insisted that all Sovereigns regardless of Mint should carry the British design.

The need for a Mint to produce coin in Australia and convert the local gold from the goldfields, without sending out of the country, finally came to fruition when an Order of Council was issued and ratified on 19 August 1853. Designs, dies and pattern coins were produced dated 1853. The Sydney Mint opened on 14 May 1855 and the first type design from the 1853 pattern was adopted for currency.

The design of the Sydney Sovereigns was to be quite different from the Imperial British type, as the original intention was for them to be legal tender in Australia only. This changed with the Colonial Branch Mint Act of 1866, when they became legal tender in the UK and other colonies. This led to the harmonization of the Imperial type designs at the Sydney Mint. The 1855-1868 yellow gold Sovereigns of the Sydney mint that were alloyed with silver were most popular in export trade with India. They were more revered than the British Sovereign for their yellow color, signifying the more valuable alloy with silver as opposed to the red gold color of the British Sovereign alloyed with copper. This changed in 1868 with the first step towards harmonization. Sydney started mixing copper in the alloy, rather than silver, making some of the 1868 dated issue and all for 1870 of the red gold color.

When the Sydney Mint stopped minting gold Sovereigns in 1926, the total number of Sovereigns struck of both Australia and Imperial types from 1855-1926 stood at 144,435,1926.

Imperial Type Sovereigns in Australia

With the significant Coinage Act of 1870 in Great Britain came a sweeping change to harmonize the design of the coins minted from the Australian output of gold with that produced from the Royal Mint in London. The fact that the Australia design coins were legal tender only within Australia had obviously affected export trade. The Colonial Branch Act of 1866 had made the Australia type coins legal tender in the UK and in trade, useful especially with closer neighbors in India and Asia. However the British Imperial gold Sovereign was already a respected trade coin with its shield reverse and more acceptable than the Australia type coins.

The Melbourne Mint

During the 1850s, Victoria alone contributed more than one-third of the world’s gold output. Although a Mint opened in Sydney in 1855, it had difficulty keeping pace with the output of the goldfields and in 1871 a new branch of the Royal Mint opened in Melbourne.

Originally anticipated the new Melbourne mint would open as early as 1870. However, due to circumstances beyond their control, the mint opened late on 12 June 1872. This tardiness was mostly because the ship Rangoon had sunk near Galle Harbour in Ceylon while carrying all the new 1871 dated dies from the mint in London. A very limited number of the dies were salvaged and these later came into use with the overdate 1872 over 1. By the end of 1872 nearly three quarters of a million Sovereigns with the shield reverse had been produced, all with the mint letter M under the wreath on the reverse. The St. George reverse Sovereigns and gold Half Sovereigns were also produced from 1873. Both the shield and St George reverse coins were produced in most years until 1887. The shield design was retained at the Australian Branch Mints only, as it was still the preferred coin in trade with India and Asia. The St. George reverse was preferred in England. The Mints were given the choice of which to strike according to demand, which is why some years do not exist for certain reverse types.

According to the publication Royal Sovereign, a Chinese General, Wong Yung Ho, visited the Melbourne mint in 1887 and confirmed that the shield design was preferred by the Indians when trading with the Orient. The Indians feared they would upset the Chinese if they paid for their wares with the St George reverse coin. This was because of the humiliating position of the Chinese national symbol the dragon under the horseman and therefore this reverse design was not generally seen in commerce in Asia.

The Melbourne Mint stopped minting Imperial type Sovereigns in 1931. The total quantity of Sovereigns produced was 147,282,731 pieces. This was the highest total of Sovereigns from the three branch Mints based in Australia.

The Perth Mint

Gold was first discovered in Western Australia in 1884 and gold mines became established at Kimberley in 1886. The gold mines at Kalgoorlie and Coolgardie quickly became recognised as two of Australia’s richest. The problems of transporting the raw gold over 2,100 miles to the nearest Mint in Melbourne were obvious and so a new branch of the Royal Mint was authorised and opened in 1899.

The Colony in Western Australia had been granted Government in 1890. John Forrest, the first Premier and Treasurer, was instrumental in establishing the Perth Mint.

Permission was granted for a Mint from London in 1894, as long as certain conditions were met. The Perth Mint Bill went through Assembly in July 1895. In 1897 and a renegotiation was necessary with a new completion date of 1 January 1898 was established. A Proclamation for the new Mint was ratified by Queen Victoria 13 October 1897. All gold coins were to be struck carrying the mint letter P.

However, as usual with all large building projects, there were some delays, and the Perth Mint building was finally completed 17 October 1898. The Mint was ready in June and the very first Perth Mint Sovereign was struck 20 June 1899.

When the Perth Mint stopped minting Imperial type gold Sovereigns in 1931, the total quantity of Sovereigns produced was 106,384,197 pieces.
Population updates s of 8/21/2019
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