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The United States Manila Mint: A Type Set of the Coins & Medals of America's Forgotten Mint

Last Modified:  6/8/2014
Set Description




Ask the average man on the street to name all of the past and present United States mints and the one most likely to be missing from their list is the U.S. branch mint in Manila. Although most collectors of U.S. coins are vaguely aware that the United States operated a branch mint in the Philippine Islands, while they were under U.S. sovereignty, most lack a full understanding of the mint’s historical context and its important place in our nation’s numismatic history.

The goal of this Custom Registry Set is to tell the story of this important but often forgotten U.S. Branch Mint and its place our nation’s numismatic heritage. This registry set presents a fully illustrated and annotated Type Set of the coins and medals of the United States Manila Branch Mint. In setting the historical context for this important series of U.S. coins and medals, this presentation incorporates historical and numismatic references, circa 1920 photographs (from the National Archives), and original color photographs taken by my father during the World War ll liberation of the Philippines.

After the United States defeated Spain in the Spanish-American war of 1898, the Philippines, along with Puerto Rico, became United States possessions. Unlike other colonial powers the U.S. always had intentions of giving the Philippine Islands full independence once the basis for good government was established. The U.S. Manila Branch Mint can best be understood in the historical context of America's half century of "Nation Building" in the Philippines.

Although regular U.S. coins and paper money were used in Puerto Rico and other U.S. territories, the economy of the Philippines was too poor to use the U.S. dollar.

In 1902 a bill was signed by President Theodore Roosevelt, authorizing a new and distinct coinage to be struck for use in the United States Territory of the Philippines.

The bill provided that the coins should be struck at Manila if, practicable, (or in U.S. mints at a charge covering the reasonable cost of the work) and that subsidiary and minor coinage should bear devices and inscriptions expressing a dual concept - the sovereignty of the United States, and the fact that the coins were for circulation in the Philippine Islands. (Shafer, 1961)

Despite the intent of the 1902 legislation that coins be struck at Manila, it would be nearly twenty years before this was accomplished.

From 1903 through the first half of 1920 all United States coinage for the Philippine Islands were produced at either the San Francisco or Philadelphia mints. The San Francisco mint was the exclusive provider of U.S. Philippine business strikes from 1908 through mid 1920.

On February 8, 1918, the Philippine legislature passed a bill appropriating 100,000 pesos for the construction of machinery for a new mint. This bill was signed by Governor-General Harrison eight days later. The machinery was designed and built in Philadelphia under the supervision of Clifford Hewitt, then chief engineer of the United States mint. In June 1919, it was assembled, tested and found satisfactory. It was then shipped to the Philippine Islands via the Panama Canal, arriving at Manila in November. Mr. Hewitt supervised the installation of the machinery and trained the Filipino employees of the mint. The mint was formally opened on Thursday morning, July 15, 1920. (Perez, 1921)

The Manila Mint was the only United States branch mint ever established outside the continental limits of the U.S.A.

In 1920 the Manila Mint struck a special medal to commemorate the opening of Mint. The medal struck in Bronze (2,200), Silver (3,700), and Gold (estimate mintage of 5 to 10) is commonly referred to as the So-Called Wilson Dollar. The obverse presents a well executed portrait of U.S. President Woodrow Wilson. The reverse shows a representation of "Juno Moneta" (the goddess of money and minting) kneeling and watching over a nude youth who is pouring planchets (coin blanks) into a coining press. The design used is a modification of a much earlier Morgan design that was used on several of the U.S. Assay Commissions Annual Medals in the 1880s and 1890s.

With the exception of the 1920 San Francisco One Centavo, which was produced prior to the opening of the Manila Mint, all U.S. coinage for the Philippines from 1920 through 1941 were produced at the Manila Mint. The mint had a daily output of 85,000 pieces and an annual capacity of 25,000,000 coins. Between July 1920 and December 1941 the Manila Mint produced 205.83 million regular issue U.S. Philippine business strikes.

Not every denomination was produced every year. In fact, regular issue business strikes of two denominations, the Half Centavo (which had been withdrawn from circulation in 1906) and the silver One Peso were never produced at the Manila Mint.

Like its contemporary, the U.S. Morgan Silver Dollar, the Silver Philippine Peso saw very limited circulation as merchants and the general public preferred the convenience of paper money to carrying pockets full of large heavy coins. Almost all One Peso coins were held in reserve in the Philippine Treasury as backing for the paper money issued by the Territory of the Philippines, and, after November 15, 1935, The Commonwealth of the Philippines. Since an adequate supply of Silver Pesos had been struck for this purpose at the San Francisco Mint between 1907 and 1912 there was no need for the Manila Mint to produce additional regular issue One Peso coins. The only One Peso coins struck at the Manila Mint were the two 1936 Commemorative Pesos, and special One Peso Leper coins produced for the Philippine Health Service.

The regular issue denominations produced at the Manila Mint were the One Centavo, Five Centavos, Ten Centavos, Twenty Centavos, and Fifty Centavos.

By far, the most numerous coin produced by the Manila Mint was the One Centavo. Between July 1920 and December 1941 the Manila Mint produced 142,317,095 regular issue One Centavo coins. More One Centavo coins were produced than all the other denominations combined. This work horse of the Philippine economy accounted for 69.14% of the regular issue coins produced by the Manila Mint.

Mintages for the other four denominations of regular issue coins struck at the Manila Mint and their percentages of the Manila Mints 1920 – 1941 production are as follows:
Five Centavos: 32,242,041 coins (15.66%)
Ten Centavos: 16,413,038 coins (7.98%)
Twenty Centavos: 12,123,046 coins (5.89%)
Fifty Centavos: 2,736,763 coins (1.33%)

"The Manila mint did not use a mint-mark on its coinage of 1920, 1921, and 1922. No Philippine coins were struck anywhere during 1923 or 1924. The Manila mint re-opened in 1925; from then through 1941, all U.S.- Philippine regular and commemorative issue were struck there and all bore the mint-mark M." (Shafer, 1961, p. 17)

By 1935 “Nation Building” had progressed to the point where the Philippines were ready to make the important transition from a U.S. Territory to a self-governing Commonwealth. A Constitution for the Philippines was approved, and on November 15, 1935, the Philippines were granted Commonwealth status, with a promise of full independence by 1946. To commemorate this important event a three coin commemorative set was struck by the Manila mint in 1936. The set consisted of a Fifty Centavos, and two One Peso Coins.

In addition to providing all of the regular issue and commemorative coinage for the Philippines from 1920 - 1941 the Manila Mint was also responsible for providing Leper Colony coinage for the Philippine Health Service. Between 1920 and 1930 five issues of Leper Colony coins were struck at the Manila Mint. The 1920 issue (10 Centavos, 20 Centavos and 1 Peso) have no mint mark. The 1922 issue (20 Centavos and 1 Peso) were stamped with the encircled initials "PM" (for Philippine Mint). The 1925 (1 Peso) and 1927 (One Centavo and Five Centavos) issues have the Mint Marks "P" and "M" on the reverse to the right and left of the value. The 1930 issue (One Centavo and 10 Centavos) have no mint marks.

Production at the Manila mint was discontinued during World War ll. 1944 and 1945 dated U.S./Philippine coins were produced at the Philadelphia, Denver, and San Francisco Mints.

During WWII Manila was occupied by the Japanese from January 1942 until March 1945. On January 9, 1944 U.S. forces under the command of General Douglas MacArthur landed at Lingayen Gulf on the Island of Luzon and proceeded to fight their way south to liberate Manila. As the forces of liberation neared Manila the Japanese general in command of the Philippines ordered all of his forces to withdraw from the city. Unfortunately the commander of the Japanese Naval Defense Force in Manila disobeyed his orders and fortified the city.

The key to the cities defenses was the Intramuros, an ancient walled fortress built by the Spanish, and the strongly-built public buildings constructed by the Spanish and American administrations.

" a defensive plan centered on the inner stronghold of the ancient walled city of Intramuros. Beyond the walls was a semicircle of public buildings prepared for defense to the last man. Streets and structures were mined, and each building was adequately victualled to be self-sufficient. Intermixed with and beyond the public buildings was a cats cradle of mutually supporting antitank, machine-gun and rifle fire covering existing obstacles." (Connaughton, 1995, p. 108)

The Mint of the Philippine Islands was located in the Intendencia Building which was constructed by the Spanish in 1876 to earthquake-proof specifications. This made the mint building extremely strong and a natural fortress for the Japanese garrison of Manila which deployed strong defenses in and around the mint building. The mints location on the south bank of the Pasig River was only yards away from the only gap in the forty foot wide, 20-feet-high stone-block walls of the ancient walled fortress of the Intramuros.

"The great wall ended at the Intendencia building, or Government Mint, so that a gap like an open door led through into the enclosed city." (Connaugton, 1995, p. 163)

This placed the mint building directly on the Allied main axis of attack during the month long (February 3, 1945 - March 3, 1945) Battle of Manila.

The final allied attack on the Intramuros was an amphibious assault, by the 3rd Battalion, 129th Regiment, across the Pasig River, past the government mint, and through the gap in the walls of the Intramuros. In order to prevent heavy allied casualties during the attack, it was necessary for U.S. artillery to knock out the Japanese strongholds in and around the mint building.

The important task of neutralizing the Japanese strong point in the government mint was assigned to the biggest and most powerful field guns in the allied arsenal the 240-mm. (9.4 inch) “Black Dragon” howitzers. The “Black Dragon” fired a massive 360 pound artillery shell which was incredibly effective against fortifications. On the morning of February 22, 1945 "the 240-mm. howitzers of Battery C, 544 Field Artillery, began bombardment to breach the north wall (of Intramuros) and knock out a Japanese strong point at the government mint." (Smith, 1963, p295)

" The number of artillery pieces used in support of the assault on Intramuros exceeded 140...Also in support, and interspersed among the big guns, were 105mm self-propelled howitzers, tank destroyers and medium tanks...At 7:30 a.m. on February 23 (1945) the order Fire! was given. The corps and divisional artillery, tanks, tank destroyers, mortars and machine-guns...belched out volley after volley in what has been described as the most coordinated and devastating (artillery) preparation of the entire Luzon operation...The missions of the direct-fire weapons were oriented around the Government Mint." (Connaughton, 1995, p 164-166)

In the fierce fighting to liberate Manila from the Japanese much of the city, including the grand old Manila Mint, was destroyed.

"The Battle for Manila occupies a unique place in the history of the Pacific War. It was the only occasion on which American and Japanese forces fought each other in a city and it was the largest battle of its kind yet fought by either the American or Japanese armies. The destruction of Manila was on the same scale as the destruction of Warsaw...and smaller only than the battles of Berlin...and Stalingrad." (Connaughton, 1995, p 15).

This nighttime photograph of the Battle of Manila was taken by my father during the battle

It is perhaps fitting that the U.S. Manila Branch Mint, which was born out of America's “Nation Building” in the Philippines, should be destroyed in the fiery cauldron of the liberation of the Philippines. On July 4, 1946, just sixteen months after the Battle of Manila the Philippines became an independent republic, ending a historic and colorful chapter in U.S. history and numismatics. U.S. issued coins remained in use in the Philippines until the mid 60's.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Allen, Lyman L., U.S./Philippine Coins 6th Edition 2008-2009. Lyman Allen Rare Coins, Virginia City, NV, 2008.

Connaughton, Richard, John Pimlott and Duncan Anderson, The Battle For Manila. Presidio Press, Inc., Novato, CA, 1995.

Japanese Defense of Cities as Exemplified by The Battle for Manila, A Report by XIV Corps (HQ Sixth Army), July 1 1945.

McFadden, Roger R., John Grost, and Dennis F.Marr, The Numismatic Aspects of Leprosy: Money, Medals, and Miscellanea, D.C. McDonald Associates, Inc, 1993

Perez, Gilbert S, Ph.D. The Mint of the Philippine Islands, in Numismatic Notes and Monographs, No. 8. American Numismatic Society, N.Y., 1921

Shafer, Neil. United States Territorial Coinage For The Philippine Islands, Whitman Publishing Company, Racine, Wisconsin. 1961.

Smith, Robert Ross. United States Army in World War II. The War in the Pacific: Triumph in the Philippines, Washington DC, 1963.

Original letters written by my father during the Luzon Campaign

Set Goals
This collection presents a type set of the regular issue coinage, commemorative coins, commemorative medals, and Culion Leper Colony coins produced by the U.S. Manila Branch Mint.

The accompanying "Set Description" and individual coin descriptions cites historical and numismatic references to place this important series of coins and medals in its historical context.

In telling the story of the Manila Mint I have also included circa 1920 Photos of the Mint, a rare Photo Postcard of the mint after the Japanese bombing of December 26, 1941, and original color photographs taken by my father during the Liberation of the Philippines and the Battle of Manila. The photos can be viewed in either the "Gallery" or "Slide Show" modes. Detailed information on each of the World War ll photographs can be found by clicking on either the Photo Icon or View Coin Button and scrolling down to "Owner Comments".

COMMORATIVE MEDALS: Included in this set are examples of both the Bronze and Silver medals (So-Called Wilson Dollar) struck to commemorate the opening of the mint.

REGULAR ISSUE TERRITORIAL COINAGE: Includes examples of each of the various denominations and varieties of regular issue coinage struck at the Manila Mint during the Territorial period (1920 - 1936).

1936 COMMONWEALTH OF THE PHILIPPINES COMMEMORATIVES: Includes the three coin commemorate set struck by the Manila Mint to commemorate the establishment of the "Commonwealth of the Philippines".

REGULAR ISSUE COMMONWEALTH COINAGE: Includes examples of each of the various denominations and varieties of regular issue coinage struck at the Manila Mint during the Commonwealth period (1937 - 1941).

CULION LEPER COLONY COINAGE: Includes examples of each of the various denominations and varieties of Culion Leper Colony coinage struck at the Manila Mint.

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Slot Name
Origin/Country
Item Description
Full Grade
Owner Comments
Pics
View Coin Photos of the Manila Mint, Circa 1920 UNITED STATES 5C 1935 M USA-PHIL NGC MS 63 The United States Manila Mint circa 1920
View Coin So-Called Wilson Dollar. Silver Medal Commemorating the Operning of the Manila Mint. UNITED STATES PHILIPPINES SILVER SC$1 1920 HK-449 WILSON DOLLAR MANILA MINT OPENING MANILA MINT OPENING NGC MS 62 So-Called Dollar, 1920 (M) HK-449 Wilson Dollar. Silver 38.2mm, 440 grains, medal commemorating the opening of the Manila Mint.

Dies for the " Wilson Dollar" were cut by by George Morgan, who was the Mint's Chief Engraver in 1920, and who was also responsible for the U.S. Morgan Silver Dollar.

The obverse presents a well executed portrait of U.S. President Woodrow Wilson.

The reverse shows a representation of "Juno Moneta" (the goddess of money and minting) kneeling and watching over a nude youth who is pouring planchets (coin blanks) into a coining press. The design used is a modification of a much earlier Morgan design that was used on several of the U.S. Assay Commissions Annual Medals in the 1880s and 1890s.

Mintage 2,200 Silver (HK-449), 3,700 Bronze (HK-450), and between 5 and 15 Gold (HK-1031). The surviving number of Wilson Dollars particularly in mint state is much less as many specimens were lost during WWII. When Japan invaded the Philippines in 1942 the U.S. government dumped 16 million Pesos in silver coins into Manila Bay to prevent it's seizure by the Japanese. Many Silver and Bronze Wilson Dollars were included in this dumping. Although many of these coins and medals were salvaged after the war the majority are heavily corroded from their long immersion in salt water.

All Wilson Dollars are scarce particularily in true Mint State. According to NGC and PCGS online population reports (3/10/2014) NGC and PCGS combined have only certified 120 Silver and 22 Bronze Wilson Dollars in MS60 and above.

NGC Population: 32/57
PCGS Population:4/17


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View Coin Bill Weber Collection pedigreed Wilson Dollar. UNITED STATES PHILIPPINES SILVER SC$1 1920 HK-449 WILSON DOLLAR MANILA MINT OPENING BILL WEBER COLLECTION NGC MS 62 So-Called Dollar, 1920 (M) HK-449 Wilson Dollar. Silver 38.2mm, 440 grains, medal commemorating the opening of the Manila Mint.

The dies for the " Wilson Dollar" were cut by George Morgan, who was the Mint's Chief Engraver in 1920, and who was also responsible for the U.S. Morgan Silver Dollar.

The obverse presents a well executed portrait of U.S. President Woodrow Wilson.

The reverse shows a representation of "Juno Moneta" (the goddess of money and minting) kneeling and watching over a nude youth who is pouring planchets (coin blanks) into a coining press. The design used is a modification of a much earlier Morgan design that was used on several of the U.S. Assay Commissions Annual Medals in the 1880s and 1890s.

Mintage 2,200 Silver (HK-449), 3,700 Bronze (HK-450), and 5 Gold (HK-1031). The surviving number of Wilson Dollars particularly in mint state is much less as many specimens were lost during WWII. When Japan invaded the Philippines in 1942 the U.S. government dumped 16 million Pesos in silver coins into Manila Bay to prevent it's seizure by the Japanese. Many Silver and Bronze Wilson Dollars were included in this dumping. Although many of these coins and medals were salvaged after the war the majority are heavily corroded from their long immersion in salt water. All Wilson Dollars are scarce particularily in true Mint State. All Wilson Dollars are scarce particularily in true Mint State. According to NGC and PCGS online population reports (3/10/2014) NGC and PCGS combined have only certified 120 Silver and 22 Bronze Wilson Dollars in MS60 and above.

This specimen has a particularly distinguished pedegree in that it is from the "Bill Weber Collection". Bill Weber was one of the foremost collectors of So-Called Dollars and one of the co-authors of the definitive So-Called Dollar reference "So-Called Dollars:An Illistrated Standard Catalog". After Mr. Weber 's death his So-Called Dollar collection was auctioned by Holabird-Kagin Americana (HKA Auction #2 - December 2, 2008). This specimen was lot # 10414 1201. It is described in the auction catalog as "A rare spectacular uncirculated example with very original toned surfaces. Mint green hues along the edges with an even mixture of grays and tans centrally. Certainly one of the finest toned examples to exist. Reverse is unusually well struck. According to Weber 's personal notes, "Nice early strike."

NGC Population: 32/57
PCGS Population:4/17
View Coin So-Called Wilson Dollar. Bronze Medal Commemorating the Operning of the Manila Mint. Dr. Greg Pineda Collection Pedigree UNITED STATES Philippines BRONZE SC$1 1920 HK-450 WILSON DOLLAR MANILA MINT OPENING EX. DR. GREGORY PINEDA NGC UNC DETAILS So-Called Dollar, 1920 (M) HK-450 Wilson Dollar. Bronze 38.2mm, medal commemorating the "Opening of the Manila Mint".

The Bronze medal commemorating the "Opening of the Manila Mint" was struck at the U.S. Manila Branch Mint in mid-July 1920. Speaker Osmena of the Filipino House of Representatives struck off the first medal during the July 15, 1920 opening day ceremony and 2000 specimens were struck on the first day. Up to 3700 Bronze Medals were produced and sold for fifty cents at the time of issue.

Many of the Bronze medals went unsold for years and were still in the Philippine Treasury at the outbreak of WWII. When Japan invaded the Philippines the Commonwealth government moved the contents of the Philippine Treasury from Manila to the island fortress of Corregidor. Prior to the fall of Corregidor 16 million Pesos in silver coins and many Silver and Bronze Wilson Dollars were dumped into Manila Bay to prevent there seizure by the Japanese. Although many of these coins and medals were salvaged after the war the majority are heavily corroded from their long immersion in salt water.

Bronze Wilson Dollars in a high state of preservation are much scarcer than the Silver medals. NGC and PCGS combined have only certified 22 Bronze Wilson dollars in MS60 and above. Unfortunately population reports for details graded coins are not available.

This attractive specimen from the Dr. Gregory Pineda Philippine Collection is 90% red with a touch of iridescent blue toning.

View Coin One Centavo Territorial Reverse (No Mint Mark), 1920 - 1922 UNITED STATES BRONZE 1C 1921 USA-PHIL KM-163 NGC MS 65 RB Mintage: 7,283,000
Composition: Bronze (95% copper, 5% zinc and tin)
Weight: 4.7000g (80 Grains)
Diameter: 24mm
Mint Mark: None

When the Manila Mint opened in July 1920 it took over production of One Centavo coins for the U.S. Territory of the Philippines. Prior to that time One Centavo coins had been manufactured in the continental United States at either the Philadelphia or San Francisco Mints and transported to the Philippines. The One Centavo coins struck at the Manila Mint from 1920 through 1922 used the same obverse and reverse design as the 1903 - 1919 One Centavo and was struck to the same specifications. A notable feature of the 1920(M), 1921(M), and 1922(M) One Centavo is that they have no Mint Mark.

The One Centavo was designed by Melicio Figueroa. The obverse design shows a young Filipino male seated next to an anvil holding a hammer in his right hand, his left arm raised, and in the background to his left is a billowing volcano. The reverse design depicts an eagle with spread wings perched atop an American shield.

This beautiful GEM is 70% red, some blue toning and great eye appeal. The 1921 (M) One Centavo is a tough date to find in GEMUNC.

The NGC population for this coin in MS65 RB is only 5 specimens with none graded higher. NGC has graded no red specimens of this date in any grade. Combined NGC/PCGS Population 5/1 (12/01/2013).
View Coin One Centavo Territorial Reverse ("M" Mint Mark), 1925 - 1936 UNITED STATES BRONZE 1C 1932 M USA-PHIL KM-163 NGC MS 66 RD Mintage: 4,000,000
Composition: Bronze (95% copper, 5% zinc and tin)
Weight: 4.7000g (80 grains)
Diameter: 24 mm
Mint Mark: M

The 1925 through 1936 One Centavo uses the same obverse and reverse designs as the 1903 - 1922 One Centavo and was struck to the same specifications. Starting in 1925 all One Centavos struck at the Manila Mint carried a M Mint Mark on the reverse to the left of the date.

The NGC population the 1932 M One Centavo in MS66 Red is 7 specimens with none graded higher. The combined NGC/PCGS certified population of this coin in MS66 Red is 17 coins with none graded higher (12/01/2013).

This gorgeous, well struck, specimen is a brilliant Full Red with proof like fields.
View Coin One Centavo Commonwealth Reverse, 1937 - 1941 UNITED STATES BRONZE 1C 1937 M USA-PHIL KM-179 NGC MS 65 RD Specifications: (1937 through 1941) Bronze (95% copper, 5% zinc and tin), 80 Grains, 24 mm; (1944) Bronze (95% copper, 5% zinc), 80 Grains, 24 mm.

The One Centavos of 1937 through 1944 continue the same obverse design common to all Phillipine base medal coins from 1903 through 1936. In 1937 the reverse design of all US/Philippine coins were changed to reflect the new status for the Philippines as a Commonwealth of the United States. A smaller eagle was used, now perched atop a smaller shield with a banner below it inscribed "Commonwealth of the Philippines." The shield used was an adaptation of a design used for the official seal of "The Government of the Philippine Islands" which appeared on Philippine paper money starting in 1905.

The One Centavos of 1937 through 1941 were minted at the Manila Mint. During the 1942 through 1944 Japanese occupation of the Philippines nearly all coins disappeared from circulation, and most daily commerce was conducted with low denomination paper currency printed by Guerrilla military units, local municipalities, or Military and Civilian Currency Boards authorized by General MacArthur or the Commonwealth government-in-exile under President Quezon.

When American forces liberated the Philippines in 1944 - 1945 they brought with them Fifty Eight Million 1944 One Centavo coins minted at the San Francisco Mint.

The 1937 One Centavo had a mintage of 15,790,000. The NGC population for the 1937 M One Centavo in MS65 Red is 8 coins with only 3 specimens graded higher. The combined NGC/PCGS certified population of the 1937 M One Centavo in MS65 Red is 14 coins with 9 specimens graded higher (12/01/2013). This specimen is a brilliant, well struck GEM.
View Coin Five Centavos Territorial Reverse (No Mint Mark), 1920 - 1921 UNITED STATES COPPER-NICKEL 5C 1920 USA-PHIL KM-164 PCGS MS 63 Mintage: 1,421,000
Composition: Copper-Nickel (75% Copper, 25% Nickel)
Weight: 5.2500 grams (77.16 Grains)
Diameter: 21.3 mm
Mint Mark: None

When the Manila Mint opened in July 1920 it took over production of Five Centavo coins for the U.S. Territory of the Philippines. Prior to that time Five Centavo coins had been manufactured in the continental United States at either the Philadelphia or San Francisco Mints and transported to the Philippines.

The Five Centavos struck at the Manila Mint in 1920 and 1921 used the same obverse and reverse designs as the 1903 - 1919 Five Centavos and were struck to the same specifications. A notable feature of the 1920(M) and 1921(M) Five Centavos is that they have no Mint Mark.

The obverse design by Melicio Figueroa features a young Filipino male seated next to an anvil holding a hammer in his right hand, his left arm raised, and in the background to his left is a billowing volcano. The reverse design, also by Melicio Figueroa, depicts an eagle with spread wings perched atop an American shield.

PCGS Population 10/5
NGC Population 2/1
Combined NGC/PCGS Population 12/6 (12/01/2013)
View Coin Five Centavos Territorial Reverse,("M" Mint Mark), 1925 - 1928 UNITED STATES COPPER-NICKEL 5C 1928 M USA-PHIL KM-167 NGC MS 64 Mintage: 1,000,000
Composition: Copper-Nickel (75% copper, 25% nickel)
Weight: 5.2500g (77.16 Grains)
Diameter: 21.3 mm
Mint Mark: M

The 1925 M through 1928 M Five Centavos used the same obverse and reverse designs as the 1903 - 1921 Five Centavos and were struck to the same specifications. The distinguishing feature of the 1925 through 1928 Five Centavos is the addition of a "M" Mint Mark on the reverse to the left of the date.

This specimen is a Brilliant, fully struck GEM. NGC Population 5/5, Combined NGC/PCGS Population 16/25 (12/01/2013).
View Coin Five Centavos Reduced Size/Weight, 1930-1935 UNITED STATES COPPER-NICKEL 5C 1932 M USA-PHIL KM-175 PCGS MS 65 Mintage: 3,956,000
Composition: Copper-Nickel
Weight: 4.7500g (75.16 grains)
Diameter: 19mm
Mint Mark: M

The obverse and reverse designs of the 1930 through 1935 (reduced size and weight) Five Centavos is the same as the 1903 through 1928 Five Centavos.

In 1906 a rise in the price of silver forced the reduction of the fineness and weight for all Philippine silver issues. The reduced size Twenty Centavos coins of 1907 - 1929 had a diameter of 21mm and were easily confused with the 21.3 mm Five Centavos of 1903 through 1928. This confusion resulted in a mismatching of dies for these two denominations in 1918 and again in 1928. A solution was found by reducing the diameter of the Five Centavos coin to 19 mm beginning in 1930. The reduced size and weight Five Centavos were made at the Manila Mint from 1930 through 1932, and again in 1934 and 1935.

In war time nickel and copper are strategic materials critical to a nations war effort. During the WWII Japanese occupation of the Philippines (1942 -1945) many pre-war Five Centavos were collected melted down and sent back to Japan.

The combined NGC/PCGS certified population for the 1932-M Five Centavos in MS65 is 16 specimens with none graded higher (12/01/2013).
View Coin Five Centavos Commonwealth Reverse, 1937 - 1941 UNITED STATES COPPER-NICKEL 5C 1941 M USA-PHIL KM-180 NGC MS 64 The Five Centavos of 1937 through 1945 continued the same obverse design used on the 1903 through 1935 Five Centavos. The reverse used the Commonwealth Arms design which was common to the 1936 commemoratives and all Philippine coins from 1937 through 1945.

In 1937 the reverse design of all US/Philippine coins were changed to reflect the new status for the Philippines as a Commonwealth of the United States. A smaller eagle was used, now perched atop a smaller shield with a banner below it inscribed "Commonwealth of the Philippines." The shield used was an adaptation of a design used for the official seal of "The Government of the Philippine Islands" which appeared on Philippine paper money starting in 1905.

Five Centavos were made at the Manila Mint in 1937, 1938 and 1941; at the Philadelphia Mint in 1944; and the San Francisco Mint in 1944 and 1945. Pre-war coins struck at the Manila Mint have the same size weight and composition as the 1930 through 1935 Five Centavos (Copper-Nickel, 75.16 Grains, 4.80 Grams,19 mm). During World War ll copper and nickel were strategic metals needed for the war effort. This resulted in the adoption of a copper-nickel-zink alloy for the 1944 and 1945 Five Centavos. The new alloy was 65% copper, 23% zink, and 12% nickel. The 1944 and 1945 Five Centavos had a weight of 4.92 Grams.

The 1941 M Five Centavos had a mintage of 2,750,000. The NGC population for this coin in MS64 is six coins with only one specimen graded higher. The combined NGC/PCGS certified population for the 1941 M Five Centavos in MS64 is 18 coins with only 7 specimens graded higher (12/01/2013).
View Coin Ten Centavos Territorial Reverse (No Mint Mark), 1920 - 1921 UNITED STATES SILVER 10C 1921 USA-PHIL KM-169 NGC MS 65 Mintage: 3,863,000
Composition: Silver
Fineness: 0.7500
Weight: 2.0000g (30.86 grains)
ASW: 0.0482oz
Diameter: 16.7 mm
Edge: Reeded
Mint Mark: None

When the Manila Mint opened in July 1920 it took over production of Ten Centavo coins for the U.S. Territory of the Philippines. Prior to that time Ten Centavo coins had been manufactured in the continental United States at either the Philadelphia or San Francisco Mints and transported to the Philippines. The Ten Centavos struck at the Manila Mint in 1920 and 1921 used the same obverse and reverse designs as the 1907 - 1919 Ten Centavos and were struck to the same specifications. A notable feature of the 1920(M) and 1921(M) Ten Centavos is that they have no Mint Mark.

The obverse design by Melicio Figueroa features a young Filipino woman standing to the right in a flowing dress while striking an anvil with a hammer held in her right hand, the left hand is raised and holding an olive branch. In the background is a billowing volcano. The reverse design, also by Melicio Figueroa, depicts an eagle with spread wings perched atop an American shield.

NGC Population: 5/0
PCGS Population: 9/2
Combined NGC/PCGS Population: 14/2 (12/01/2013)

This GEMBU specimen has full luster and is a NGC Top Pop coin.
View Coin Ten Centavos Territorial Reverse ("M" Mint Mark), 1929 & 1935 UNITED STATES SILVER 10C 1935 M USA-PHIL KM-169 NGC MS 65 Mintage: 1,280,000
Composition: Silver
Fineness: 0.7500
Weight: 2.0000g (30.86 grains)
ASW: 0.0482oz
Diameter: 16.7 mm
Edge: Reeded
Mint Mark: M

The 1929 M and 1935 M Ten Centavos have the same obverse and reverse design as the 1907 through 1921 Ten Centavos and were struck to the same specifications. The distinguishing feature of the 1925 M and 1935 M Ten Centavos is the addition of a "M" Mint Mark on the reverse to the left of the date.

This GEM BU specimen is from the famous "Just Having Fun" collection. It is well struck with lightly toned lustrous surfaces. NGC has certified eight coins at this level with five finer. PCGS has certified seven coins at this level with two finer. Combined NGC/PCGS Population: 15/7 (12/13/2013).
View Coin Ten Centavos Commonwealth Reverse, 1937 - 1941 UNITED STATES SILVER 10C 1941 M USA-PHIL KM-181 NGC MS 66 Mintage: 2,500,000
Composition: Silver
Fineness: 0.7500
Weight: 2.0000g (30.86 grains)
ASW: 0.0482oz
Diameter: 16.7 mm
Edge: Reeded
Mint Mark: M

The Ten Centavos of 1937 through 1941 continued the same obverse design that was used on the 1907 - 1935 Ten Centavos and was struck to the same specifications. The reverse used the Commonwealth Arms design which was common to to the 1936 commemoratives and all Philippine coins from 1937 through 1945.

In 1937 the reverse design of all US/Philippine coins were changed to reflect the new status for the Philippines as a Commonwealth of the United States. A smaller eagle was used, now perched atop a smaller shield with a banner below it inscribed "Commonwealth of the Philippines." The shield used was an adaptation of a design used for the official seal of "The Government of the Philippine Islands" which appeared on Philippine paper money starting in 1905.

The 1941 M Ten Centavos has a great deal of historical signifiance in that this coin was born on the eve of World War ll and was certainly among the last coins produced at the Manila Mint before the Japanese invaded the Philippines.

The NGC population for the 1941 M Ten Centavos in MS66 is twelve coins with only four specimens graded higher. The combined NGC/PCGS cerftified population is 23/5 (12/01/2013).

This specimen is a fully struck, brilliant, untoned SUBERB GEM.
View Coin Twenty Centavos Territorial Reverse (No Mint Mark), 1920 - 1921 UNITED STATES SILVER 20C 1920 USA-PHIL KM-170 NGC MS 64 Mintage: 1,046,000
Composition: Silver
Fineness: 0.7500
Weight: 4.0000g (61.72 grains)
ASW: 0.0964oz
Diameter: 21 mm
Edge: Reeded
Mint Mark: None

When the Manila Mint opened in July 1920 it took over production of Twenty Centavo coins for the U.S. Territory of the Philippines. Prior to that time Twenty Centavo coins had been manufactured in the continental United States at either the Philadelphia or San Francisco Mints and transported to the Philippines. The Twenty Centavos struck at the Manila Mint in 1920 and 1921 used the same obverse and reverse designs as the 1907 - 1919 Twenty Centavos and were struck to the same specifications. A notable feature of the 1920(M) and 1921(M) Twenty Centavos is that they have no Mint Mark.

The obverse design by Melicio Figueroa features a young Filipino woman standing to the right in a flowing dress while striking an anvil with a hammer held in her right hand, the left hand is raised and holding an olive branch. In the background is a billowing volcano. The reverse design, also by Melicio Figueroa, depicts an eagle with spread wings perched atop an American shield.

NGC Population 2/1
PCGS Population: 4/2
Combined NGC/PCGS Population: 6/3

This condition census GEMBU specimen has nice strike and full luster, as it came from the mint!
View Coin Twenty Centavos Muled with Five Centavos Reverse, 1928 UNITED STATES SILVER 20C 1928 M USA-PHIL MULED WITH 5C REVERSE KM-174 NGC AU 55 Mintage: 100,000
Composition: Silver
Fineness: 0.7500
Weight: 4.0000g (61.72 grains)
ASW: 0.0964oz
Diameter: 21 mm
Edge: Reeded
Mint Mark: M

All 1928-M Twenty Centavos are "MULES", combining the regular Twenty Centavos obverse die with a regular Five Centavos reverse die, which bears a narrower shield and larger date than the Twenty Centavos reverse. Unlike the 1918-S Five Centavos MULE which was made in error the 1928-M Twenty Centavos MULE was made intentionally to fill a rush order for Twenty Centavos pieces from the banking community. Since no reverse dies for Twenty Centavos had been sent from Philadelphia that year, the only suitably sized reverse die available was that used for Five Centavos coins. A 1927 Five Centavos die was altered and used for the 1928 Twenty Centavos. The underdate feature is faint at best and is rarely if ever detectable. The 1928 Twenty Centavos has a M Mint Mark on the reverse to the left of the date.

The 1928/7-M MULE had a Mintage of only 100,000 coins making it the lowest mintage "Reduced Size & Weight" Twenty Centavos and a key date in the Twenty Centavos series. In AU55 this coin has a PCGS Population of 3/38 and a Combined PCGS/NGC Population of 4/52 (12/01/2013).

This specimen is a well struck, problem free, Choice AU, with plenty of original mint luster and a nice cartwheel on both obverse and reverse.
View Coin Twenty Centavos Territorial Reverse ("M" Mint Mark), 1929 UNITED STATES SILVER 20C 1929 M USA-PHIL KM-170 PCGS MS 64 Mintage: 1,970,000
Composition: Silver
Fineness: 0.7500
Weight: 4.0000g (61.72 grains)
ASW: 0.0964oz
Diameter: 21 mm
Edge: Reeded
Mint Mark: M

The 1929 M Twenty Centavos uses the same obverse design as the 1907 - 1928 Twenty Centavos and was struck to the same specifications. Unlike the 1928 M Twenty Centavos Mule which used an altered Five Centavos reverse die the 1929 M Twenty Centavos used the same regular Twenty Centavos reverse that was used on the 1907 - 1921 Twenty Centavos. The 1929 M Twenty Centavos is distinguished from the 1920 (M) and 1921 (M) Twenty Centavos by the "M" Mint Mark on the reverse to the left of the date.

PCGS Population: 16/8
NGC Population: 9/3
Combined NGC/PCGS Population: 25/11 (12/01/2013)

View Coin Twenty Centavos Commonwealth Reverse, 1937 - 1941 UNITED STATES SILVER 20C 1941 M USA-PHIL KM-182 NGC MS 64 Mintage: 1,500,000
Composition: Silver
Fineness: 0.7500
Weight: 4.0000g (61.72 grains)
ASW: 0.0964oz
Diameter: 21 mm
Edge: Reeded
Mint Mark: M

The Twenty Centavos of 1937 through 1941 continued the same obverse design used on the 1907 through 1929 Twenty Centavos and was struck to the same specifications. The reverse used the Commonwealth Arms design which was common to to the 1936 commemoratives and all Philippine coins from 1937 through 1945.

In 1937 the reverse design of all US/Philippine coins were changed to reflect the new status for the Philippines as a Commonwealth of the United States. A smaller eagle was used, now perched atop a smaller shield with a banner below it inscribed "Commonwealth of the Philippines." The shield used was an adaptation of a design used for the official seal of "The Government of the Philippine Islands" which appeared on Philippine paper money starting in 1905.

This well struck specimen has Full Brilliance and Proof Like fields.

NGC Population: 8/7
PCGS Population: 18/6
Combined NGC/PCGS Population: 26/13 (12/01/2013)
View Coin Fifty Centavos Territorial Reverse (No Mint Mark), 1920 - 1921 UNITED STATES SILVER 50C 1920 USA-PHIL KM-171 NGC MS 64 Mintage: 420,000
Composition: Silver
Fineness: 0.7500
Weight: 10.0000g (154.32 grains)
ASW: 0.2411oz
Diameter: 27.5 mm
Edge: Reeded
Mint Mark: None

When the Manila Mint opened in July 1920 it took over production of Fifty Centavo coins for the U.S. Territory of the Philippines. Prior to that time Fifty Centavo coins had been manufactured in the continental United States at either the Philadelphia or San Francisco Mints and transported to the Philippines. The Fifty Centavos struck at the Manila Mint in 1920 and 1921 used the same obverse and reverse designs as the 1907 - 1919 Fifty Centavos and were struck to the same specifications. A notable feature of the 1920(M) and 1921(M) Fifty Centavos was that they had no Mint Mark.

The obverse design by Melicio Figueroa features a young Filipino woman standing to the right in a flowing dress while striking an anvil with a hammer held in her right hand, the left hand is raised and holding an olive branch. In the background is a billowing volcano. The reverse design, also by Melicio Figueroa, depicts an eagle with spread wings perched atop an American shield.

The NGC population for the 1920 Fifty Centavos in MS64 is 3 coins with none graded higher. The combined NGC/PCGS population is 13/1 (12/01/2013).

This attractive NGC Top Pop example of the 1920 Fifty Centavos is from the "Just Having Fun Collection".
View Coin Murphy-Quezon Fifty Centavo, 1936 UNITED STATES SILVER 50C 1936 M USA-PHIL MURPHY-QUEZON KM-176 NGC MS 65 Mintage: 20,000 *
Composition: Silver
Fineness: 0.7500
Weight: 10.0000g (154.32 grains)
ASW: 0.2411oz
Diameter: 27.5 mm
Mint Mark: M

In 1936 the Manila Mint produced a set of three coins to commemorate the founding of the Commonwealth Of The Philippines on November 15,1935. The set consisted of a Fifty Centavos, and two One Peso Coins. The coins were designed by Ambrosio Morales, a Professor of Fine Arts at the University of the Philippines. The two commemorative Pesos were struck in .800 fineness silver. The Fifty Centavos was struck in .750 fineness silver. The three coin set had a face value of 2.5 Pesos, equal to $1.25 in U.S. Dollars, and sold for $3.13.

The obverse design of the Murphy-Quezon Fifty Centavos features portraits of the first Philippine President Manuel L. Quezon and U.S. Governor General Frank Murphy. The reverse design depicts the official seal of "The Commonwealth of the Philippines".

* The actual number of existing Murphy-Quezon Fifty Centavos is far less than the mintage figures would suggest as many of these coins were crated and thrown into Manila Bay, near Corregidor, in 1942 to avoid seizure by the invading forces of Japan.

The NGC population for this coin in MS 65 is thirty-nine specimens with only five coins graded higher. The combined NGC/PCGS certified population for the 1936 Murphy-Quezon Fifty Centavos in MS65 is sixty-seven coins with only seven coins graded higher (12/01/2013). This NGC MS-65 specimen is a fully struck, silver toned GEM.
View Coin Murphy-Quezon Peso, 1936 UNITED STATES SILVER PESO 1936 M USA-PHIL MURPHY-QUEZON KM-178 NGC MS 66 800 Silver, 20.0 Grams, ASW .5144 oz, 35 mm.

In 1936 the Manila Mint produced a set of three coins to commemorate the founding of the Commonwealth Of The Philippines on November 15,1935. The set consisted of a Fifty Centavos, and two One Peso Coins. The coins were designed by Ambrosio Morales, a Professor of Fine Arts at the University of the Philippines. The two commemorative Pesos were struck in .800 fineness silver. The Fifty Centavos was struck in .750 fineness silver. The three coin set had a face value of 2.5 Pesos, equal to $1.25 in U.S. Dollars, and sold for $3.13.

The obverse design of the Murphy-Quezon Peso features portraits of the first Philippine President Manuel L. Quezon and U.S. Governor General Frank Murphy. The reverse design depicts the official seal of "The Commonwealth of the Philippines".

The Mintage of the 1936M Murphy-Quezon Peso was 10,000 coins, however, the actual number of existing coins is far less as many of these coins were crated and thrown into Manila Bay, near Corregidor, in 1942 to avoid seizure by the invading forces of Japan.

The NGC population for the Murphy-Quezon Peso in MS-66 is 25 coins with only 6 specimens graded higher. The Combined NGC/PCGS certified population is 41/8 (12/01/2013).
View Coin Roosevelt-Quezon Peso, 1936 UNITED STATES SILVER PESO 1936 M USA-PHIL ROOSEVELT-QUEZON KM-177 NGC MS 66 .800 Silver, 20.0 Grams, ASW .5144 oz, 35 mm.

In 1936 the Manila Mint produced a set of three coins to commemorate the founding of the Commonwealth Of The Philippines on November 15,1935. The set consisted of a Fifty Centavos, and two One Peso Coins. The coins were designed by Ambrosio Morales, a Professor of Fine Arts at the University of the Philippines. The two commemorative Pesos were struck in .800 fineness silver. The Fifty Centavos was struck in .750 fineness silver. The three coin set had a face value of 2.5 Pesos, equal to $1.25 in U.S. Dollars, and sold for $3.13.

The obverse design of the Roosevelt-Quezon Peso features portraits of the first Philippine President Manuel L. Quezon and U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt. This was the second appearance of a living U.S. President on a coin issued by the United States. The other was on the U.S. Sesquicentennial commemorative Half Dollar issued in 1926 on which living President Calvin Coolidge was portrayed.

The reverse design of the Roosevelt-Quezon Peso depicts the official seal of "The Commonwealth of the Philippines".
Design elements of the Commonwealth Reverse incorporate the rich history of the Philippines. The eagle perched atop the shield, of course, represents the United States. The shield used was an adaptation of a design used for the official seal of The Government of the Philippine Islands which appeared on Philippine paper money starting in 1905 (Allen 2008). The three stars at the top of the shield represent the three main geographical regions of the Philippines: Luzon, Mindanao, and the Visayas. The lettering on the Scroll beneath the shield reads Commonwealth of the Philippines. The oval in the center of the shield depicts a modification of the Coat of Arms of the City of Manila which dates to 1596.

On the 20th of March, 1596 King Philip The II bestowed upon the ensigne y siempre leal City of Manila a Coat of Arms such as is possessed by other cities of the Indies. It shall consist of a shield which shall have in its upper part a golden castle on a red field closed by blue doors and windows and which shall be surmounted by a crown and on the lower half on a blue field, a half lion and half dolphin of silver armed and langued gules (red nails and tongue). The said lion shall hold in his paws a sword with guards and hilt. (Royal Edict of March 20, 1596 as quoted in Perez 1946 and 1975)

If you look at the attached picture, you can clearly see the castle surmounted by a crown and the half lion-half dolphin holding a sword with guards and hilt in his paws.

The mintage of the 1936M Roosevelt-Quezon Peso was 10,000 coins, however, the actual number of existing coins is far less as many of these coins were crated and thrown into Manila Bay, near Corregidor, in 1942 to avoid seizure by the invading forces of Japan.

The NGC population of the Roosevelt-Quezon Peso in MS66 is 26 coins with only 8 specimens graded higher. The Combined NGC/PCGS population is 64/10 (12/01/2013). This NGC MS66 specimen is a fully struck, untoned, fully brilliant SUPERB GEM.

References:
U.S./Philippine Coins, 6th Edition, 2008, by Lyman L. Allen
The Copper Coinage of the Philippines by Dr. Gilbert S. Perez, first published in the Coin Collectors Journal, Sept-October 1946 and reprinted in Philippine Numismatic Monographs Number 19 in 1975.
View Coin Culion Leper Colony - 1920 Issue (No Mint Mark) 10 Centavos UNITED STATES ALUMINUM 10C 1920 USA-PHIL CULION LEPER COLONY KM-9 NGC VF Details In 1906 the Bureau of Health for the U.S. Territory of the Philippines established a colony for leper patients on the small island of Culion in the China Sea. For health reasons, the decision was made that the leper colony should have a separate coinage of its own which would not circulate in the rest of the Philippines.

One of the fascinating features of the monetary system in the leper colony was the strict regulations which separated the circulation of government coinage and the special "Leper Coins". In the colony proper "Leper Money" was the only legal medium of exchange. Government coinage was not allowed within the colony and non-lepers that did business in the colony had to exchange their "Government Money" for "Leper Money" before they entered the colony. When they exited the colony they exchanged their "Leper Money" for "Government Money". In this way "Leper Money" only circulated within the colony. The police strictly enforced these regulations and violators were subject to a fine of not more than Fifteen Pesos, imprisonment of up to one month or both.

The First Issue of Culion Leper coins was struck by the firm of Frank and Company, Manila in 1913. In 1920 the newly opened U.S. Manila Branch Mint took over production of Culion Leper Colony coinage. The 1920 Culion Leper Colony issue consisted of Ten Centavos, Twenty Centavos, and One Peso coins, all of which were struck in aluminum.

The obverse design of the 1920 Cullion Leper Colony "10 Centavos" consists of a caduceus, the words "BUREAU OF HEALTH" and the date "1920". The reverse has the denomination "10 CENTAVOS" and the words "CULION LEPER COLONY - PHILIPPINE ISLANDS". The 1920 "10 Centavos" carried no mint mark.

The aluminum Culion Leper Colony coins proved totally unsatisfactory due to rapid deterioration from the climatic conditions in the Philippines and the chemical disinfect (mercuric bichloride) used to disinfect leper colony money. Starting in 1922 all Leper Colony coinage would be struck in copper-nickel.

SPECIFICATIONS:
Mint: U.S. Manila Branch Mint
Mint Mark: None
Mintage: 20,000
Catalog: KM-9
Composition: Aluminum
Diameter: 29.8mm
View Coin Culion Leper Colony - 1920 Issue (No Mint Mark) 20 Centavos UNITED STATES ALUMINUM 20C 1920 USA-PHIL CULION LEPER COLONY KM-12 NGC VF Details 1920 was the first year that Culion Leper Colony coins were struck at the newly opened U.S. Manila Branch Mint. The 1920 Culion Leper Colony issue consisted of Ten Centavos, Twenty Centavos, and One Peso coins, all of which were struck in aluminum.

The obverse design of the 1920 Cullion Leper Colony "20 Centavos" consists of a caduceus, the words "BUREAU OF HEALTH" and the date "1920". The reverse has the denomination "20 CENTAVOS" and the words "CULION LEPER COLONY - PHILIPPINE ISLANDS". The 1920 "20 Centavos" carried no mint mark.

The aluminum Culion Leper Colony coins proved totally unsatisfactory due to rapid deterioration from the climatic conditions in the Philippines and the chemical disinfect (mercuric bichloride) used to disinfect leper colony money. Starting in 1922 all Leper Colony coinage would be struck in copper-nickel.

SPECIFICATIONS:
Mint: U.S. Manila Branch Mint
Mint Mark: None
Mintage: 10,000
Composition: Aluminum
Diameter: 32.3 mm
View Coin Culion Leper Colony - 1920 Issue (No Mint Mark) 1 Peso UNITED STATES ALUMINUM PESO 1920 USA-PHIL CULION LEPER COLONY KM-15 NGC VF Details 1920 was the first year that Culion Leper Colony coins were struck at the newly opened U.S. Manila Branch Mint. The 1920 Culion Leper Colony issue consisted of Ten Centavos, Twenty Centavos, and One Peso coins, all of which were struck in aluminum.

The obverse design of the 1920 Cullion Leper Colony "1 Peso" consists of a caduceus, the words "BUREAU OF HEALTH" and the date "1920". The reverse has the denomination "1 PESO" and the words "CULION LEPER COLONY PHILIPPINE ISLANDS". The 1920 "1 Peso" carried no mint mark.

The aluminum Culion Leper Colony coins proved totally unsatisfactory due to rapid deterioration from the climatic conditions in the Philippines and the chemical disinfect (mercuric bichloride) used to disinfect leper colony money. Starting in 1922 all Leper Colony coinage would be struck in copper-nickel.

SPECIFICATIONS:
Mint: U.S. Manila Branch Mint
Mint Mark: None
Mintage: 4,000
Composition: Aluminum
Diameter: 35.4 mm
View Coin Culion Leper Colony - 1922 Issue (Incuse Monogram "PM" Mint Mark) 20 Centavos UNITED STATES COPPER-NICKEL 20C 1922PM USA-PHIL CULION LEPER COLONY KM-13 NGC VF Details All Culion Leper Colony coins were routinely disinfected by the Philippine Health Service. The caustic chemicals used in the disinfection process had an extremely deleterious effect on aluminum. By 1922 it was apparent that the Aluminum Cullion Leper Colony coinage of 1913 and 1920 were just not holding up and a more acid resistant alloy needed to be found. Starting in 1922 all Culion Leper Colony coins were struck in a Copper-Nickel alloy of 75% copper and 25% nickel.

The obverse design of the 1920 Cullion Leper Colony 20 Centavos consists of a caduceus, the words "PHILIPPINE HEALTH SERVICE" and the date "1922". The reverse has the denomination "20 CENTAVOS" and the words "CULION LEPER COLONY PHILIPPINE ISLANDS". An incuse monogram PM (Philippine Mint) is stamped between 20 and CENTAVOS.

SPECIFICATIONS:
Mint: U.S. Manila Branch Mint
Mint Mark: Incuse monogram PM
Mintage: 10,000
Composition: Copper-Nickel
Diameter: 31.8mm
View Coin Culion Leper Colony - 1922 Issue (Incuse Monogram "PM" Mint Mark) 1 Peso (Straight Wing Variety) UNITED STATES COPPER-NICKEL PESO 1922PM USA-PHIL CULION LEPER COLONY CADUCEUS STRAIGHT WINGS STRAIGHT WING VARIETY NGC XF Details 1922 Peso, Straight Wings Type I

All Culion Leper Colony coins were routinely disinfected by the Philippine Health Service. The caustic chemicals used in the disinfection process had an extremely deleterious effect on aluminum. By 1922 it was apparent that the Aluminum Cullion Leper Colony coinage of 1913 and 1920 were just not holding up and a more acid resistant alloy needed to be found. Starting in 1922 all Culion Leper Colony coins were struck in a Copper-Nickel alloy of 75% copper and 25% nickel.

The obverse design of the 1920 Cullion Leper Colony 1 Peso consists of a caduceus, the words "PHILIPPINE HEALTH SERVICE" and the date "1922". The reverse has the denomination "1 PESO" and the words "CULION LEPER COLONY PHILIPPINE ISLANDS". An Incuse monogram "PM" (Philippine Mint) mint Mark is stamped between the "1" and "PESO"

SPECIFICATIONS:
Mint: U.S. Manila Branch Mint
Mint Mark: Incuse monogram PM
Mintage: 8,280 (All Varieties)
Composition: Copper-Nickel
Diameter: 35.2mm
View Coin Culion Leper Colony - 1925 Issue ("P" and "M" Mint Mark) One Peso UNITED STATES COPPER-NICKEL PESO 1925PM USA-PHIL CULION LEPER COLONY KM-18 NGC AU Details 1925PM One Peso, (KM-18)

The obverse of the 1925PM Culion Leper Colony One Peso features the bust of Filipino revolutionary hero Dr. Jose Rizal (Filipino patriot and martyr who was killed by the Spanish in 1896). The obverse legend reads "CULION LEPER COLONY - PHILIPPINE ISLANDS". The reverse features the seal of the Philippine Health Service. Above the seal is the legend "PHILIPPINE HEALTH SERVICE". Below the seal is the date "1925" and the denomination "ONE PESO". The Mint Marks "P" and "M" are to the right and left of the value.

SPECIFICATIONS
Mint: U.S. Manila Branch Mint
Mint Mark: "P" "M"
Mintage: 20,000
Composition: Copper-Nickel (75% Copper, 25% Nickel)
Diameter: 35.4 mm
View Coin Culion Leper Colony - 1927 Issue ("P" and "M" Mint Mark) One Centavo UNITED STATES COPPER-NICKEL 1C 1927PM USA-PHIL CULION LEPER COLONY 2 BUTTONS - STRAIGHT "S" TYPE III NGC AU 55 1927PM One Centavo, Type lll (KM-A5)

The obverse of the 1927PM Culion Leper Colony One Centavo features the bust of Filipino revolutionary hero Apolinario Mabini (known as the "brains of the Philippine Revolution"). The obverse legend reads "CULION LEPER COLONY - PHILIPPINE ISLANDS". The reverse features the seal of the Philippine Health Service. Above the seal is the legend "PHILIPPINE HEALTH SERVICE". Below the seal is the date "1927" and the denomination "ONE CENTAVO". The Mint Marks "P" and "M" are to the right and left of the value.

There are three die variations of the 1927PM One Centavo. This specimen is Type lll (KM-A5) which is the rarest of the three. Type lll can be distinguished from the other die varieties by two buttons on Mabini's coat.

This choice AU specimen is literally in a class by itself as the single finest certified example of the 1927PM One Centavo Type lll (KM-A5). The Combined NGC/PCGS certified population for this coin in AU55 is one specimen with none graded finer.

SPECIFICATIONS
Mint: U.S. Manila Branch Mint
Mint Mark: "P" "M"
Mintage: 30,000 (for all die varieties)
Composition: Copper-Nickel (75% Copper, 25% Nickel)
Diameter: 21.2 mm

View Coin Culion Leper Colony - 1927 Issue ("P" and "M" Mint Mark) Five Centavos UNITED STATES COPPER-NICKEL 5C 1927PM USA-PHIL CULION LEPER COLONY KM-7 NGC XF Details The obverse of the 1927PM Culion Leper Colony Five Centavos features the bust of Filipino revolutionary hero Dr. Jose Rizal (Filipino patriot and martyr who was killed by the Spanish in 1896). The obverse legend reads "CULION LEPER COLONY - PHILIPPINE ISLANDS". The reverse features the seal of the Philippine Health Service. Above the seal is the legend "PHILIPPINE HEALTH SERVICE". Below the seal is the date "1927" and the denomination "FIVE CENTAVOS". The Mint Marks "P" and "M" are to the right and left of the value.

SPECIFICATIONS:
Mint: U.S. Manila Branch Mint
Mint Mark: PM
Mintage: 16,000
Catalog: KM-7
Composition: Copper-Nickel
Diameter: 24.6mm
View Coin Leper Colony And Stations - 1930 Issue (No Mint Mark) 10 Centavos UNITED STATES COPPER-NICKEL 10C 1930 USA-PHIL CULION LEPER COLONY KM-10 NGC XF Details The obverse of the 1930 10 Centavos features a bust of Andres Bonifacio, a Filipino revolutionary general, and the legend "LEPER COLONIES AND STATIONS - PHILIPPINE ISLANDS". On the reverse is the denomination (10), the date (1930), and the inscription "PHILIPPINE HEALTH SERVICE - LEPER COIN TEN CENTAVOS"

SPECIFICATIONS:
Mint: U.S. Manila Branch Mint
Mint Mark: None
Mintage: 17,000
Composition: Copper-Nickel
Diameter: 27mm
View Coin Photo of the Manila Mint after the Japanese bombing of December 26, 1941 UNITED STATES Manila Mint after the Japanese bombing of December 26, 1941 10C 1944 D USA-PHIL NGC MS 65 This rare photo postcard shows the front facet of the Manila Mint after the Japanese bombing of December 26, 1941.
View Coin Origional Color Photos of the Liberation of the Philippines: The Luzon Campaign UNITED STATES Origional Kodachrome Slides of the Liberation of the Philippines 10C 1935 M USA-PHIL PCGS MS 63 During World War II my father serverd in the U.S. Army, in the Pacific, and was an eye witness to the Liberation of the Philippines. The photographs in this slide show were taken by by father on Kodachrome Color Slide film during the Luzon Campaign.

The image on this page shows three Kodachrome Slides taken by my father during the liberation of the Philippines. Exposed film had to be sent to Australia for processing (Note the red "MADE IN AUSTRALIA" stamp on the top of the first slide) then approved by the Military Censor before being mailed to my mother in the United States. Note the "APPROVED FOR MAILING U.S. CENSOR" stamp on the top of the second slide
View Coin Retaking Fort Stotsenburg & the Clark Field Air Base UNITED STATES Retaking Fort Stotsenburg & the Clark Field Air Base 10C 1935 M USA-PHIL NGC MS 64 The picture on this page was taken by my father during the Liberation of the Philippines. The photograph shows Military Police at the entrance to Fort Stotsenburg.

Fort Stotsenburg is located 50 miles northwest of Manila. Prior to the fall of the Philippines Fort Stotsenburg was a major U.S. Army base and the site of the Clark Field Army Air Force base. Fort Stotsenburg/Clark Field was the first major objective for the Sixth Army on its drive towards Manila. General Walter Krueger the Commanding General of the Sixth Army assigned the task of capturing Fort Stotsenburg and Clark Field to XIV Corps 37th and 40th Divisions. The Battle for Fort Stotsenburg took place from January 24, through January 31, 1945. This photograph was taken between January 31, 1945 and February 2, 1945.

REFERENCES
Original letters written by my father during the Luzon Campaign

Smith, Robert Ross, _The Capture of Clark Field_ in U.S. Army in World War ll. The War In the Pacific: Triumph in the Philippines, (Center of Military History United States Army, Washington D.C., 1993) pages 167-186.
View Coin Manila the Approach March: U.S. Army Engineers Bridge Unfordable Rivers to Keep the Advance Moving UNITED STATES Manila the Approach March 1C 1937 M USA-PHIL NGC MS 64 RD The pictures on this page were taken by my father in early February 1945 during the approach march to Manila.

The first picture shows one of the many highway and railroad bridges which were destroyed by the Japanese to slow the American advance.

After securing Ft. Stotsenburg and the important Clark Field Air Base the XVI Corps attacked south through the Central Plains toward Manila.

The Central Plains between Ft. Stotsenburg and Manila is crossed by many deep and broad rivers. The main bridges over these rivers were the route 3, route 5 and Manila Railroad bridges. In order to slow the American advance the Japanese destroyed these bridges as they retreated.

The Route 3 and Manila Railroad crossing at Calumpit are located twenty-five miles below Clark Field and about an equal distance from Manila. This was an important XVI Corps objective because the crossing at Calumpit was "a flat land defile through which passed the only highway and rail connections providing direct access to Manila from the western side of the Central Plains. To the northeast of Calumpit lies the formidable Candaba Swamp, passable only to light vehicles even in dry weather; to the south and west are virtually impassable swamplands, fish pounds, and marshy river deltas forming the northern shore of Manila Bay. Although the Japanese had destroyed the bridges at Calumpit XVI Corps had to secure the crossing sites before the Japanese took advantage of the natural defense opportunities afforded by the deep, unfordable Pampanga to block the western approach to Manila." (Ross, 1993 page 211)

The destroyed bridges in the first photo are the Route 3 and Manila Railroad Bridges over the Pampanga River at Calumpit.

The bridge the second picture is a Heavy Pontoon Bridge constructed by XIV Corps engineers over the Pampanga River at Calumpit. Note the troop trucks crossing the bridge.

One of the major problems the XIV Corps faced during the drive to Manila was logistical in nature, deriving from the speed of the advances, the distances covered, the chronic shortages of motor transportation, and the destruction of bridges. To span the many rivers on the way to Manila, Sixth Army engineers leap-frogged bridging equipment southward, sending pontoon and heavy treadway bridging forward as Baileys and other semi-permanent crossings were erected over the Agno and other streams back to Lingayen Gulf. By a complex continuation of such processes, the engineers assured a constant flow of supplies and heavy equipment down Route 3 behind the 37th Division. (Smith.1993. Pages 232-233)

REFERENCES
Original letters written by my father during the Luzon Campaign

Smith, Robert Ross, "Manila: The Approach March" in U.S. Army in World War ll. The War In the Pacific: Triumph in the Philippines, (Center of Military History United States Army, Washington D.C., 1993) pages 211-236.


View Coin The Battle of Manila (February 3, 1945 - March 3, 1945) UNITED STATES The Battle of Manila (February 3, 1945 - March 3, 1945) 20C 1938 M USA-PHIL PCGS MS 64 The photos on this page were taken by my father in February or March 1945 during or shortly after the Battle of Manila.

The first photo shows a destroyed Japanese medium tank. Note that the turret and right track have been shot off.

The second picture shows a destroyed public building. Note the army tents and fuel drums in the foreground and the almost total destruction of the public building in the background.

View Coin The Commonwealth of the Philippines Reestablished at Malacanan Palace, Manila UNITED STATES Commonwealth of the Philippines Reestablished at Malacanan Palace 10C 1941 M USA-PHIL NGC MS 63 During World War II my father serverd in the U.S. Army, in the Pacific, and was an eye witness to the Battle of Manila (February 3, 1945 - March 3, 1945) The photographs on this page were taken by by father immediately after the battle.

The first photograph shows Malacanan Palace, the seat of government for the Commonwealth of the Philippines. The second photo shows my father in front of Malacanan Palace.

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